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KANSAS STATE 
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



SPECIAL COLLECTIONS 



COLUMBIAN HISTORY 



OF THE 



KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL CO 



J 



LOCATED AT MANHATTAN, KANSAS. 



By J. D. WALTERS, M. Sc., 

Pbofebsob of Industrial Art and Designing. 



TOPEKA, KANSAS. 
PEESS OF THE HAMILTON PRINTING COMPANY: 
Edwin H. Snow, State Printer. 



1893. 



*J am telling My friends in Massachusetts a very bitter thing, and I have become bolder 
antl bolder in saying that J am under the impression that the whole system of popular edu- 
cation is superannuated; that what is taught is no longer the food that the rising generations 
most want; and that the very knowledge that is taught is not the best; so that I would 
change both the substance and the methods." — Louis Agasbiz. 



Preface. 



On February 19, 1893, it will be 30 years since the Kansas State Agricultural 
College was founded and located. For a new State, and one that made history 
as fast as the trans-Missourian countries did, this is a long period. Many of the 
men to whose energy the people of Kansas owe this magnificent institution of 
learning — the largest agricultural school in the world — have left to conquer 
other Territories, some have followed more remunerative or attractive callings 
than that of the educator of farmers' sons and farmers' daughters, and many 
have died. The close of the century may find but few of the pioneers in health 
and vigor. If a history including the valuable element of personal recollection 
was to be written, the work could not be deferred much longer. 

The author believes that the facts related in this history are sufficient to give 
those who may interest themselves in the College a fairly complete and entirely 
truthful picture of its development and growth; more than this is not intended. 
An active participation for over 16 years in the work of the Faculty as one of 
its members, a persistent effort for over half of this time to obtain the neces- 
sary data, and a personal acquaintance with nearly all the men named, ought to 
give some weight to statements that may conflict with other versions or views. 

JOHN DANIEL WALTERS. 

Manhattan, Kas., January, 1893. 



Contents. 



ClIAi'TEIt I: 

Blur hi Central College. 

CHAPTER Hi 

The Morrill Bill and the Endowment. 
ClIAI'TKH III: 

The Agricultural College In 1863. — President Denison. — From 1863 to 1873. — 
Professor Mudge. -State Appropriations and Permanent Improvements 
during the First Decade. 
Chapter IV: 

The Reorganization. John A. Anderson elected President. — Anderson's 
Maxims. — The New Education. — The Industrialist. — Characteristics of An- 
derson. 
Chapter V: 

President Anderson's Collaborators. — Legislative Appropriations and Per- 
manent Improvements, from 1874 to 1879. — Professor Ward's Vice-Presi- 
denoy. 
Chaptek VI: 

President Fairchild, and the Aims, Objects, Methods and Equipments of his 
Ideal Agricultural School. — A Period of Progress. — Additions to the Fac- 
ulty.- -State Appropriations, from 1880 to 1892. — Improvements, from 1880 
to 1892. — Apparatus and Library. — Farmers' Institutes. 
Chapter VII: 

The Experiment Station. — The Hatoh Law. — Stations, Bulletins, and Re- 
ports. 
Chatteh VIII: 

The College Aid Bill— The New Course of Study. — Post-Graduate Work and 
Degrees. — The Industrial Departments. — The Faoulty and the Board. — A 
Glimpse into the Future. 
Chapter IX: 

Chronological Tables. 



STUDENTS AT WORK IN THE GARDENS. 



COLUMBIAN HISTORY OF THE KANSAS 
STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



'Hp'HE Kansas State Agricultural College owes its location and initiative 

* momentum to the pioneers of Manhattan. The city was founded in 
1855 by the cooperation of two colonies — one from New England, arriving 
March 24, and one from Cincinnati, arriving June 1. Among the members 
of the New England colony were several college graduates, and it is stated 
that the founding of a college was discussed and decided upon during the 
voyage, long before reaching the objective point of the expedition, the conflu- 
ence of the Big Blue and Kaw rivers. 

From necessity the project had to be deferred for a while, but it was not 
abandoned. As early as 1857, when the buffaloes were yet numerous in the 
northern part of Riley county, and less than three summers had bleached the 
roof of the first house west of the Blue river, an association was formed to 
build a college in or near Manhattan, to be under control of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Kansas, and to be called "Bluemont Central College." 

The charter was approved February 9, 1858. It provided for the estab- 
lishment of a classical college, but contained the following (in the light of fut- 
ure history) interesting section : 

The said association shall have power and authority to establish, in addition to 
the literary department of arts and sciences, an agricultural department, with 
separate professors, to test soils, experiment in the raising of crops, the cultivation 
of trees, etc., upon a farm set apart for the purpose, so as to bring out to the ut- 
most practical results the agricultural advantages of Kansas, especially the capa- 
bilities of the high prairie lands. 

The leading members of the association were : Rev. Joseph Denison, D. D., 
afterwards President of the College ; Isaac T. Goodnow, elected State Super- 
intendent in 1862, reelected in 1864; Rev. W. Marlatt, now a model farmer 
on College Hill ; S. C. Pomeroy, afterwards United States Senator. 

A site of 100 acres was selected for the institution upon the rising ground 
about one mile -west from the town, and the title secured by special act of 



I. 



Bluemont Central College. 




6 



KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



Congress introduced and fathered by Senator Pomeroy. The Cincinnati Town 
Company promised liberal aid in town lots and town stock, but coupled their 
promise with the illiberal clause that the aid should not be delivered until the 
college association could show property to the amount of $100,000. The 
New England Town Company gave 50 shares of stock in the north half of 
Manhattan, representing 100 city lots. I. T. Goodnow, assisted by Doctor 
Denison, sold these, and by personal solicitation here and in the East obtained 
funds for a building. Many of the founders must have taxed themselves quite 
heavily. G. S. Park, S. D. Houston, Joseph Denison, John Kimball, J3§. 
OiSSfeew; I. T. Goodnow and Washington Marlatt gave $300 each, which 
were princely gifts when measured by the financial condition of these pio- 
neers. The whole amount of cash collected from all sources at the time 
amounted to $4,000. 

The corner-stone was laid with elaborate ceremony, May 10, 1859, with 
speeches from General Pomeroy and others, and the institution was opened 
for the reception of students about one year thereafter. It was a poor time 




BLTJEMONT BUILDING. 

and place, however, for building up a college. The squatters had nothing to 
give, the students were scarce, the Methodist Episcopal Church of the Terri- 
tory had two other educational institutions to support, and the country was 
disturbed by the bloody preambles of the "War of the Rebellion. The first 
annual report of the institution to the Kansas and Nebraska Methodist Epis- 
copal Conference gives the names of 53 pupils, under the charge of Eev. 
Washington Marlatt as the principal teacher, and Miss Julia A. Bailey as the 



Columbian Histoby. 



7 



assistant. The salary of Rev. Marlatt for 1860 was $600, and was to be paid 
in Bluemont City town lots — lots that never had a more than nominal value. 
No wonder that he complained: "The labor of teaching is great enough for 
two persons, while the income is barely sufficient to pay the board for one." 

Upon the admission of Kansas as a State, January 29, 1861, the founding 
of a State University became a probability, and the trustees of Bluemont 
College, represented by Hon. I. T. Goodnow, were nearly successful in locat- 
ing that institution at Manhattan by offering their building for this purpose. 
On March 1 the measure passed both Houses of the Legislature, but met 
with a veto from Gov. Charles Robinson, who was determined that the State 
University or the State capital should go to Lawrence. He offered to sign 
the bill at once if the members of the Legislature from Riley county would 
assist him to get the State capital for his home city. It was the faithfulness 
of the Manhattanites to their constituents, who wanted the capital as far 
west as possible, that lost the State University for Bluemont. A little over a 
year later another chance presented itself for the college to become a State 
institution. When, on July 2, 1862, the "agricultural college act" was 
passed by Congress, the trustees offered it once more to the Legislature, and 
this time the offer, consisting of 100 acres of land, a plain three-story stone 
building, measuring 44x60 feet, and containing in the third story a chapel 
with a curved ceiling, a library with several hundred volumes, and some il- 
lustrative apparatus, valued all together at about $25,000, was accepted. 

The act referred to is "An act donating public lands to the several States 
and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and 
the mechanic arts," giving to each State lands to the amount of 30,000 acres 
for each Senator and Representative in Congress, for "the endowment, sup- 
port and maintenance of at least one college " for the benefit of " agriculture 
and the mechanic arts." The bill was passed by Congress in 1859, but was 
vetoed by President James Buchanan under the pressure of the States Rights 
party. In 1862 the act was again passed, and the pen that wrote the procla- 
mation of emancipation — -the death warrant of American slavery — ap- 
proved it. 



8 



KANSAS STATE AGMICULTUBAL COLLEGE. 



II. 

The Morrill Bill and the Endowment. 

-^T^HE so-called "Morrill act," to which the Kansas State Agricultural 
College owes its endowment, was passed in a most critical period of our 
national life, and its history is interesting to the student of American institu- 
tions from more than one point of view. 

The annexation of territory, as the result of the war with Mexico, had ad- 
ded millions of acres of wild land to the large public domain of the United 
States. At the time of the election of James Buchanan to the presidency, 
the National Government still had at its command, with constitutional right 
of disposal, nearly a billion and a half acres. It had not yet squandered 
an empire to scheming railroad companies, though petitions began to pour in 
begging for grants for various public and private interests. Agricultural 
societies throughout the Union, seemingly in concerted action, followed the 
clamoring multitude by asking for the donation of public lands to the States 
for the purpose of agricultural education. The agitation took formal shape 
as early as 1852, when the Legislature of Massachusetts passed a resolution 
asking Congress for a grant of lands for the purpose of promoting a " National 
Normal College," as they styled it ; and similar propositions, urging that the 
nation should promote scientific instruction in agriculture, in order to pre- 
serve the chief industry of the country, soon came from many sides. It was 
claimed that the prevailing methods of agriculture were rapidly exhausting 
the soil, while weeds, insect pests, blights and mildews were overrunning gar- 
dens, fields, and orchards. 

In 1858, memorials were presented in Congress from the Kentucky and 
New York agricultural societies, and from the Legislatures of New York, 
California, and Missouri, praying for lands for educational purposes in State 
agricultural colleges. Hon. Justin A. Morrill, of Vermont, in speaking of 
this subject before the House of Representatives, on April 20, 1858, said: 
"There has been no measure for years which has received so much attention 
in the various parts of the country as the one now under consideration, so- 
far as the fact can be proved by petitions which have been received from va- 
rious States, north and south, from State societies, county societies, and from 
individuals. Petitions have come in almost every day from the commence- 
ment of the session." 

The bill then before Congress, granting land to the States for agricultural 
colleges, upon which Mr. Morrill spoke these words, was almost identical with 
the one which became a law four years later. It was introduced and brought 
to its passage in the House. The main difference between it and the one 
which finally won success was, that the former granted only 20,000 acres 



Columbian History. 



9 



of land for each Senator and Representative in Congress, instead of 30,000, 
finally allowed. Temporary loss resulted, as it does so often, in permanent 
gain. The first bill passed the House April 22, 1858, and was indorsed by 
the Senate at the following session, but it met the veto of President Buchanan, 
February 24, 1859. 

The veto message adopts the view of the timid school of interpreters of the 
constitution, and sets forth the obstacles which the friends of national aid to 
education and the public-school system had to encounter a generation or two 
ago. It rested mainly, like the well-known veto of the homestead bill a 
year later, upon constitutional grounds. He urged the minor objections, that 
such a measure was inexpedient, in cutting off $5,000,000 of revenue at a time 
when it was difficult to meet the expenses of the Government and to sustain 
public credit; that it would be injurious to the new States, in enabling specu- 
lators who might buy the land scrip to withhold their land from settlement, 
and thus run up the price to the actual settler ; that the Government would 
have no power to follow into the States to see that it was properly executed; 
and that such a donation would interfere with the growth of established col- 
leges. "It-would be better," says the message, "if such an appropriation of 
land must be made to institutions of learning, to apply it directly to the estab- 
lishment of professorships of agriculture and the mechanic arts in existing 
colleges, without the interference of State legislatures." 

Undoubtedly some of the objections were strong ones. The history of 
several of the agricultural schools, where the land was fooled away to land 
speculators, and the proceeds given to classical institutions, vindicated a num- 
ber of them only too well ; but they were posed simply to furnish a necessary 
background. He believed that the proposed grant violated the constitution 
of the United States. He presumed it "undeniable that Congress does not 
possess the power to appropriate money in the treasury, raised by taxes on the 
people of the United States, for the purpose of educating the people of the 
respective States. This would be to collect taxes for every State purpose 
which Congress might deem expedient and useful — an actual consolida- 
tion of the Federal and State governments." The power specifically given 
to Congress, "to dispose of the territory and other property of the United 
States," was to be used only for the objects specifically enumerated in the 
constitution. At least the public lands could not be " given away." He be- 
lieved that the previously-made donations of the sixteenth sections, and, later, 
of the thirty-sixth sections, for common schools, and of townships for univer- 
sities and seminaries, were safely constitutional; but in these transactions the 
Government had not "given away" land. It had merely acted as a prudent 
speculator in "disposing of" some land, in order to enhance the price of the 
balance. The message "purposely avoided any attempt to define what por- 
tions of land may be granted, and for what purpose, to improve the value and 
promote the sale of the remainder, without violating the constitution." 

In speaking of this veto, Prof. James Albert Woodburn says : 

That would, indeed, have been an interesting definition. It would have squared 



10 



KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



the circle in a constitutional sense. For nothing has been more impossible in our 
constitutional history than to limit, by rigid and permanent written definitions, the 
constitutional powers of the nation. It is now generally accepted as true that, while 
a written parchment can define broad principles of government which may not be 
violated, it cannot contain specifically all the necessary and proper powers whioh, 
under varying circumstances, may be exercised by the state. These must be deter- 
mined by progressive national interpretation. In the doctrine of implied powers 
there was found "a sleeping giant in the constitution," which has been able at nu- 
merous times to assert its strength for the common benefit of all the States. This 
giant power has been forcibly wielded, always in a beneficent way, in the history of 
national grants in aid of education within the States. In seeking to promote the 
public welfare under the same written document, another Congress and a new Presi- 
dent found it possible for the nation to extend again a helping hand to the States 
in the establishment of schools and for the promotion of learning. 

"Where there is a lack of argument against a measure," said Mr. Morrill, 
while facing the veto of his bill, "the constitution is fled to as an inexhaust- 
ible source of supply." There was nothing left, though, but to re-introduce 
it in the House of the Thirty-ninth Congress, where it was again unfavorably 
reported by the Committee on Public Lands. 

In the meantime, however, the measure had found a champion in the per- 
son of Senator Wade, of Ohio, and on May 5, 1862, this gentleman introduced 
in the Senate the bill which, after much opposition, finally became a law. It 
was postponed and delayed in various ways. Even our Kansas Senator, " Jim " 
Lane, of Leavenworth, objected to it, because it would, as he thought, exhaust 
all the valuable public land in his State; and in this he was generally sup- 
ported by the press. The redeeming feature of Senator Lane's opposition 
was his unflinching belief that Kansas was "the only State with desir- 
able public lands within its borders," and that, in case the bill should be- 
come a law, all other States from New Jersey to Illinois would rush to Kansas 
to take up her beautiful prairies. Mr. Lane finally fell back on the constitu- 
tional objection, and warned the Senate against the danger of "giving to 
sovereign States the right of entering lands within the sovereign States." 
Unable to defeat the bill, he and his coadjutors made a fight for the amend- 
ment that no more than 1,000,000 acres of the land should be located in any 
one State by assignees of the lands, and in this they were successful. 

The bill, as amended by the Kansas Senator, passed the Senate June 10, 
1862, the House one week later, and became a law on July 2, 1862, by re- 
ceiving the signature of President Abraham Lincoln. The act is as follows: 

[Chapter CXXX, United States Laict 186!.] 
An Act donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the 
benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arte. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of A merica 
in Congress assembled : 

That there be granted to the several States, for the purposes hereinafter men- 
tioned, an amount of public land, to be apportioned to each State a quantity equal 
to 30,000 acres for each Senator and Representative in Congress to which the States 
are respectively entitled by the apportionment under the census of 1860: Provided, 
That no mineral lands shall be selected or purchased under the provisions of this act. 



* 



Columbian history. 



11 



Section 2. And be it further enacted, That the land aforesaid, after being surveyed, 
shall be apportioned to the several States in sections or subdivision of sections not 
less than one-quarter of a section; and whenever there are public lands in a State 
subject to sale at private entry at $1.25 per acre, the quantity to which said State 
shall be entitled shall be selected from such lands within the limits of such State; 
and the Secretary of the Interior is hereby directed to issue to each of the States in 
which there is not the quantity of public lands subject to sale at private entry at 
$1.25 per acre, to which said State may be entitled under the provisions of this act, 
land scrip to the amount in aores for the deficiency of its distributive share: said 
scrip to be sold by said States, and the proceeds thereof applied to the uses and pur- 
poses prescribed in this act, and for no other use or purpose whatsoever: Provided, 
That in no case shall any State to which land scrip may thus be issued be allowed to 
locate the same within the limits of any other State or of any Territory of the United 
States, but their assignees may thus looate said land scrip upon any of the unap- 
propriated lands of the United States subject to sale at private entry at $1.25 or less 
per acre: And provided further, That not more than 1,000,000 acres shall be located 
by such assignees in any one of the States: And provided further, That no such loca- 
tion shall be made before one year from the passage of this act. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That all the expenses of management, superin- 
tendence and taxes from date of selection of said lands previous to their sales, and 
all expenses incurred in the management and disbursement of the moneys which may 
be received therefrom, shall be paid by the States to which they may belong, out of 
the treasury of said States, so that the entire proceeds of the sale of said lands shall 
be applied without any diminution whatever to the purpose hereinafter mentioned. 

Seo. 4. And be it further enacted, That all moneys derived from the sale of the 
lands aforesaid by the States to which the lands are apportioned, and from the sales 
of land scrip hereinbefore provided, shall be invested in stocks of the United States 
or of the State, or some other safe stocks, yielding not less than 5 per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the money so invested shall constitute a per- 
petual fund, the capital of which shall remain forever undiminished, (except so far 
as may be provided in section 6 of this act,) and the interest of which shall be invi- 
olably appropriated by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this act 
to the endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where the leading 
object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including 
military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and 
the mechanic arts, in such manner as the Legislatures of the States may respectively 
prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial 
classes in the several pursuits and professions in life. 

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the grant of land and land scrip hereby 
authorized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as to the 
provisions hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the several States shall be 
signified by legislative aots: 

First. If any portion of the fund invested, as provided by the foregoing section, 
or any portion of the interest thereon, shall, by any action or contingency, be di- 
minished or lost, it shall be replaced by the State to which it belongs, so that the 
capital of the fund shall remain forever undiminished; and the annual interest shall 
be regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned in the fourth 
section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding 10 per centum upon the amount 
received by any State under the provisions of this act may be expended for the 
purchase of lands for sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the re- 
spective Legislatures of said States. 



12 Kansas State agricultural College. 



y Second. No portion of said fund, nor the interest thereon, shall be applied' 
'! directly or indirectly, under any pretense whatever, to the purchase, erection, preser- 
- vation or repair of any building or buildings. 

Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of the provisions of this 
act shall provide, within five years at least, not less than one college, as described in 
* the fourth section of this act, or the grant to such State shall cease; and said State 
shall be bound to pay the United States the amount received on any lands previously 
sold, and that the title to purchasers under the State shall be valid. 

Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the progress of each college, 



/ recording any improvements and experiments made, with their costs and results, and 

f 



supposed useful; one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, to 
all the other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions of this act, and 
also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

Fifth. When lands shall be selected from those which have been raised to double 
their minimum price, in consequence of railroad grants, they shall be computed to 
the States at the maximum price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

Sixth. No State while in a condition of rebellion or insurrection against the Gov- 
ernment of the United States shall be entitled to the benefits of this act. 

Seventh. No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act unless it shall ex- 
press its acceptance thereof, by its Legislature, within two years from the date of 
its approval by the President. 

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That land scrip issued under the provisions of 
this act shall not be subject to location until after the first day of January, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-three. 

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the land officers shall receive the same fee 
for locating land scrip issued under the provisions of this act as is now allowed for 
the location of military bounty land warrants under the existing laws: Provided, 
Their maximum compensation shall not be thereby increased. 

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That the Governors of the several States to 
which scrip shall be issued under this act shall be required to report annually to 
Congress all sales made of such scrip until the whole shall be disposed of, the amount 
received for the same, and what appropriation has been made of the proceeds. 

THE ENDOWMENT. 

Kansas was among the first of the States to accept the proffered endow- 
ment. The resolution of the Legislature to "agree and obligate itself to com- 
ply with all the provisions of said act" was approved by Governor Carney 
February 3, 1863, and the resolution to accept the offer of the trustees of 
Bluemont Central College in "fee-simple" February 16 of the same year. 
Thus Manhattan became the seat of the Kansas State Agricultural College, 
The following are the laws of the State relating to these steps : 

Joint Resolution accepting the provisions of an act of Congress, entitled "An act donating public 
lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts," approved July 2, 1862. 

Be it resolved by the Legislature of the State of Kansas: 

That the provisions of the act of Congress, entitled "An act donating public 
lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the ben- 
efit of agriculture and the mechanic arts," approved July 2, 1802, are hereby ac- 



Columbian History. 



13 



•cepted by the State of Kansas; and the State hereby agrees and obligates itself to 
comply with all the provisions of said act. 

Resolved, That upon the approval of this act by the Governor, he is hereby in- 
structed to transmit a certified copy of the same to the Secretary of State and Sec- 
retary of the Interior of the United States. 



n1 An Act to locate and establish a college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic arts. 

Whebeas, The Congress of the United States, by an act approved July 2, 1862, 
■and entitled ''An act donating public lands to the several States and Territories 
which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts," 
granted to the State of Kansas, upon certain conditions, 90,000 acres of public lands 
for the endowment, support and maintenance of a college, where the leading object 
shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including mili- 
tary tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the indus- 
trial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life; and 

Whebeas, The State of Kansas by its Legislature has expressed its acceptance of 
the benefits of the said act of Congress, and has agreed to fulfill the conditions there- 
in contained: therefore, 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas: 

Section 1. That the College, in the foregoing preamble mentioned, be and the 
same is hereby permanently located at and upon a certain tract of land, situated and 
being in the county of Riley and the State aforesaid, and bounded and described as 
follows: Commencing at a point 40 rods east of the northeast corner of the south- 
west quarter of seotion number 12, in township number 10 south, and range number 
7 east of the sixth principal meridian ; thence running south, parallel to the east 
line of said quarter-section, 80 rods; thence west 200 rods, more or less, to the west 
line of said quarter-section; thence north on the west line of said quarter-section 80 
rods, to the north line of said quarter-section; thence east 200 rods, on the north 
line of said quarter-section, to the point of beginning, containing 100 acres: Pro- 
vided, however, That the location of said college, as aforesaid, is upon this express 
condition, that the Bluemont Central College Association, in whom the title of said 
land is now vested, shall within six months from and after the approval of the Gov- 
ernor hereto, cede to the State of Kansas, in fee-simple, the real estate above de- 
scribed, together with all buildings and appurtenances thereunto belonging; and 
shall, within such time, transfer and deliver to said State the apparatus and library 
belonging to said Bluemont Central College Association. 

Sec. 2. The Governor of the State is hereby authorized to receive the title pa- 
pers by which the foregoing mentioned property may be transferred to the State, 
and to cause the same to be duly recorded in the proper office, and to be deposited 
in the office of the Auditor of State. 

Sec. 3. This act shall be published twice in some newspaper printed at Topeka, 
and shall take effect and be in force from and after such publication. 

Took effect February 19, 1863. 

An Act to provide for the location of lands granted to the State by act of Congress approved July 2, 
18G2, and making an appropriation therefor. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas : 

Section 1. The Governor is hereby authorized to appoint three commissioners 
to select and locate the lands to which the State is entitled under the act of Congress 
approved July_2, 1862,'entitled "An act donating^publio landsHo],the^several States 



14 



KANSAS STATE A OBIC UL TUBAL COLLEGE. 



and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts;" and such commissioners are hereby authorized and empowered to 
take any and all steps necessary to the complete location of said lands. 

Seo. 2. Each commissioner shall receive the sum of $3 per day for every day's 
actual service, and his reasonable expenses; and the Auditor is hereby directed to 
issue warrants on the treasury for the same upon an account, properly verified un- 
der oath, being filed in his office. The commissioners shall make a report to the 
Governor of all their proceedings under this act, to be transmitted by his excellency 
to the next Legislature. 

Seo. 3. This act shall take effect from and after its passage. 

Approved March 3, 1863. 

Three commissioners were immediately appointed by the Governor to 
select the lands. The grant gave 90,000 acres ; but as a portion of the se- 
lected tracts supposed to be within the railroad limits counted double, the 
College received but 82,313.52 acres. In the fall of 1866, Hon. J. M. Har- 
vey commenced the appraisal of these lands, and July 27, 1867, reported 
his work completed. Hon. I. T. Goodnow was appointed Land Agent. 
Hon. S. D. Houston having, as temporary agent, previously sold a few 
acres. Mr. Goodnow held the office until the reorganization of the College 
in 1873, and sold about 42,000 acres, for about 8180,000. His successor, L. 
R. Elliott, held the office of Land Agent from 1873 to 1883, and sold over 
32,000 acres, for about $240,000. The remainder, some 8,000 acres, was sold 
for over $30,000 by Mr. J. B. Giffbrd, who held the office of Land Agent until 
after all the land was sold, in 1888. The total fund derived from these sales 
is $502,927.35, all of which, except unpaid land contracts, is invested in 
Kansas school and municipal bonds, paying 6 per cent, interest. The State 
has made good losses from this fund by unfortunate investment or fraud to 
the amount of $3,775.57. 

The deficiency of 7,686.48 acres in the amount of land received by the 
College was closely inquired into, and the still valid claim was presented be- 
fore the Department of the Interior by Hon. S. J. Crawford, in 1880, and' 
again in 1887, with added proof of its character, afforded by later decisions 
of the Supreme Court of the United States. When the Secretary of the In- 
terior refused to reopen the case decided adversely in 1880, the matter was 
brought to the attention of Congress by a joint resolution offered in the 
House of Representatives by Hon. John A. Anderson, granting to the State ' 
the privilege of selecting from public lands still unsold within the limits of 
the State the amount needed to make up the loss from the original 90,000 
acres. The resolution was favorably reported by the Committee on Public 
Lands, and passed both Houses without objection. President Cleveland, 
however, vetoed it upon the ground that this State, having selected lands 
which fell within the limits of the railroad, afterwards located, had received 
all to which it was rightly entitled. 



Columbian History. 



15 



CONGRESSIONAL APPROPRIATIONS. 

In March, 1887, Congress passed the so-called "Hatch bill," which pro- 
vided for the organization in each State of a station for agricultural experi- 
ments, and gave to each station an annual appropriation of $15,000 for this 
purpose. The Legislature designated this College as the proper place for such 
experimental work, and the institution has received since April, 1888, when 
the first payment was made, 882,500 from this source. Further particulars 
with regard to this appropriation, and the very valuable work which it has 
enabled the College to do in the interest of western agriculture, will be found 
in another part of this historical sketch. 

On August 30, 1890, another act was passed by Congress, the so-called 
" College aid bill," an act applying a portion of the proceeds of the public 
lands to the more complete endowment and support of the colleges for the 
benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts established under the provisions 
of the "Morrill act." It provides for an annual appropriation, beginning 
with $15,000 for 1890, with an annual increase for 10 years by an additional 
sum of $1,000 over the preceding year, the annual amount thereafter to each 
State to be $25,000. A copy of this bill will be found elsewhere in this vol- 
ume, together with some facts pertaining to its history. 

STATE APPROPRIATIONS. 

In miscellaneous appropriations, the College has received from the State, 
since its organization, and including the fiscal year 1892-'93, for which appro- 
priations have been made, about $283,000. The township of Manhattan, in 
1871, donated $12,000 in bonds. These appropriations were made partly for 
permanent improvements and partly for running expenses or canceling debts, 
and do not include pay of Regents, Land and Loan Agents, or for selecting lands. 
Those of 1866-70 were first made in shape of a loan, but were donated again 
in 1870. It will be seen that the average annual State appropriation has been 
less than $10,000, while a comparison of the aggregate with the inventory of 
June, 1892, amounting to $291,419.85, shows a difference in favor of the Col- 
lege of over $8,000. 

In other words, the present inventory more than accounts for or compen- 
sates for every cent the tax-payers of Kansas have contributed toward the 
upbuilding of the institution. 




KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



III. 



The Agricultural College 
1863 to 1873.— Professor 



in 1863. — President Denison. — From 
Mudge. — State Appropriations and 



Permanent Improvements during the First Decade. 

T is natural that the College should have remained for a time, as it did, 
under the care of its founders and donators, and as a consequence should 
ive conformed to the ideal before their minds. The charter provided for 
four departments — science and literature, mechanic arts, agriculture, and 
military tactics. Of these, that of science and literature was put in opera- 
tion. The course was laid out to cover four years, with an indefinite prepara- 
tory, and conformed closely with that of Bluemont Central College. , The 
first catalogue gives the names of 94 students in the preparatory department 
^ ^and 14 in the College proper. Seventy-four were from Riley county. The 
Faculty consisted of Rev. Joseph Denison, D.D., A.M., President and Profes- 
sor of Ancient Languages and Mental and Moral Sciences ; J. G. Schnebly, 
* A- M., Professor of Natural Science; Rev. N. 0. Preston, A.M., Professor of 
Mathematics and English Literature; Jeremiah Evfets Piatt, Principal of 
Preparatory Department; Miss Belle Haines, assistant teacher in the Pre- 
paratory Department; and Mrs. Eliza C. Beckwith, teacher of instrumental 
music. 

PRESIDENT DENISON. 

Joseph Denison, D. D., A. M., the first President of the Kansas State Agri- 
cultural College, was born in Bernardston, Franklin county, Massachusetts, 
October 1, 1815. When he was two years old his parents removed to Cole- 
rain, in the same county, where they engaged in farming. Here young Deni- 
son lived the usual life of the New England farmer boy of those days. In 
the fall of 1833 he entered Wilbraham Academy to prepare for college, and 
in 1837 he joined the sophomore class in Wesleyan University, at Middle- 
town, Conn., where he graduated in 1840. In the same year he was elected 
professor of languagesirx- Amcrio a Seminary, Duchess county, New York, 
^njJieldr-that^Jositlon for three years, having for his pupils such men as Alex- 
ander Winchell, the renowned geologist, and Albert S. Hunt, the great philan- 
thropist, whose gifts to hospitals and institutions of learning have aggregated 
$1,000,000 or more. From 1843 to 1855 he was engaged in the work of the 
ministry in Massachusetts, and in the spring of the latter year he came to 
Kansas, settling on a tract of Government land near Manhattan, where he 
became one of the prime movers in the organization of Bluemont College and 
afterward its president. The first, president of Bluemont College was,^^^ 

I. T. Goodnow, and tfao oooond Rov. R : L. Harfor d. A few y««M<IaterPwneii <-*t^/2, 
the College became a State institution, ^Ee^ wao stir} its President, holding this 




Washington Marlatt was Principal of Bluemont 
Central College when it opened January 9, 1860. 

The office of Principal was declared vacant Sep- 
tember 11,1861, and I. T. Goodnow elected to that po- 
sition to serve until April 1, 1862. 

By action of the resident trustees acting as a 
prudential Committee, March 29, 1862, I. T. Goodnow 
was left in charge of the College with the title of 
Acting President. 

Although the Bluemont building and 100 acres of 
land had been offered to the State of Kansas by the 
Lluemont Central College Association, and accepted by 
the State February 16, 1863, the prudential committee 
of that Association passed a motion March 5, 1863, re- 
questing the presiding Bishop of the Kansas Methodist 
Episcopal Conference to be held March 11, 1863, to ap- 
point the Reverend Joseph Denison to the Presidency 
of Bluemont Central College. The appointments recorded 
in the minutes of that Conference include this item: 
"J. Denison, President of Bluemont College, member of 
Manhattan Quarterly Conference." 

The committee on education of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Conference held March 11-16, reported Bluemont 
Central College as having been in successful operation 
during the past conference year, under the superin- 
tendence of Prof. R. L. Harford, assisted by Misses 
Hubbard and Bemis. (Minutes of the Conference, March 
11-16, 1863.) 

The Minutes of the Board of Regents of the Kansas 
State Agricultural College for July 23, 1863, show that 
Rev. Joseph Denison was elected President of that Col- 
lege, on that date. He served to August 31, 1873. 



Columbian History. 



17 



responsible position until 1873, when he resigned, and soon after accepted, for 
a time, the presidency of Baker University, at Baldwin City. At present he 
is engaged in the work of the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Doctor Denison is characterized by his collaborators as a man of conservative 
views with regard to education, politics, and religion — a typical New Eng- 
lander of the old school. As a financier, for himself as well as for the institu- 
tion, he did not prove an entire success, but he was warmly devoted to his 
work, honest to himself and his trust, and unselfish in every one of his acts. 
Kansas owes Doctor Denison a debt of gratitude which can never be repaid. 

FROM 1863 TO 1873. 

During the first 10 years the College grew slowly. Up to 1873, only 15 
students had graduated, while the number of students in attendance during 
any one term never reached 125, and these were mostly from Riley and the 
adjoining counties. Some of the efforts made by the Faculty to populate the 
empty school benches seem almost incredible at the present time. "At a 
Board meeting, December 2, 1863, President Denison stated that he had en- 
tered into a contract with the board of directors of the district school of the 
place to have their scholars instructed during the winter in the College — 
principally in the Preparatory Department of the institution — for the sum 
of $130. At the same meeting, Mr. Jeremiah Everts Piatt was elected to a 
professorship in the Preparatory Department and Professor of Vocal Music, 
at a salary of $600 per annum." (Report of State Commissioners, 1873.) 

The catalogue for 1868 gives the number of students present in the winter 
term as 83, and the report for the fiscal year ending November 30, 1871, states 
the number of students then present in the different departments as 119 — 64 
gentlemen and 55 ladies. Of the students in the College course proper, 
in the fall term of 1871, 14 were in the Literary Department and 10 in the 
Agricultural and Scientific Course. The number of counties of the State rep- 
resented by students in the three terms of the year 1870 was 22, and the 
number of other States six. In 1871 — i. e., in the common year, not in the 
school year — 27 counties and seven States were represented. 

The reasons for this slow growth must be looked for in many directions : 
The newness of the State, the western location of Manhattan, the inadequacy 
of means, the founding of rival literary institutions at Lawrence, Baldwin, 
Topeka, etc., and the fact that industrial education was in its experimental 
stage. President Denison and a majority of the professors were classic stu- 
dents, and had no faith in the educational results of technical instruction not 
connected with the classics. They planned to add elective work in practical 
science and applied mathematics to the "old education," but it was intended 
to supplement, and not supplant, this. The introduction of obligatory daily 
manual labor as an educational factor was not attempted. Aside from occa- 
sional lectures on general topics, little was done for agriculture and the 
mechanic arts, and the increasingly frequent demands for an institution that 

—2 



18 Kansas State Agricultural college. 



would educate towards, instead of away from, the farm and the workshop were 
met with uncertain promises. The Board, largely composed of professional 
men, must have held similar views, though the report of the State Commis- 
sioners of 1873 says that " attempts were made by members of this body at 
different times to change the curriculum of study, and in other respects to 
alter the running of the College so as to make it conform more nearly to the 
demands of the people." 

It should not be assumed, however, that the institution failed of doing good 
work in its class-rooms. The Literary Department was second to no higher 
school of the kind in the State. The catalogue of 1868-69 states that up to 
that time the College had educated at least 80 teachers for the public schools. 
A considerable number of ministers, especially of the M. E. Church, which 
still considered the institution as its protege, and reported it as such at the 
annual conferences, also received their education here. Nor were the sciences 
entirely neglected. Benjamin F. Mudge, A.M., called to the chair of natural 
science in 1865, was an enthusiastic teacher and an uutiring explorer. Aided 
by some of his pupils, one of whom is now professor of geology at the Kansas 
State University, Professor Mudge made a large collection of geological speci- 
mens and donated it to the College, where it formed a nucleus of the present 
museum. Being the first "take" in the new State, it contained many speci- 
mens which could not have been acquired later. 

PROF. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN MUDGE. 

Prof. Benjamin Franklin Mudge, A. M., was born in Orriton, Me., August 
11, 1817, and died at Manhattan, Kas., November 21, 1879. When Benja- 
min was two years old, his father's family moved to Lynn, Mass., and engaged 
in the shoe business. In 1840, B. F. Mudge graduated at Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, Middletown, Conn. Some years later this institution honored him with 
the degree of master of arts. During his vacation, and at odd moments, 
he diligently pursued his studies in natural history; and although after grad- 
uating he entered the legal profession, he never relaxed his interest in science, 
and gathered here the nucleus of the mineralogical collection which he after- 
wards presented to the Kansas State Agricultural College. After practicing 
law for 16 years, during which time he was twice honored with the mayoralty 
of Lynn, he removed to Cloverporf, Ky., where he was connected with the 
Breckinridge Coal Company. On the breaking out of the rebellion, he re- 
moved to "Wyandotte county, Kansas, and, his love for geology becoming 
known, he frequently delivered lectures on his favorite study through the 
State. In 1864, through the influence of Hon. I. T. Goodnow, Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction, he was invited to deliver a course of lectures before 
the Legislature, whereupon this body conferred upon him the office of State 
Geologist — an honor entirely unsought, yet thoroughly enjoyed. While the 
State appropriation provided for the office but a short time, he was subse- 
quently elected geologist under the State Board of Agriculture, which office 
he held during life. 



Columbian history. / 



19 



In 1865, he was elected to fill the chair of natural sciences in the Kansas 
State Agricultural College, to which institution/ with a royal munificence, he 
donated his entire cabinet, valued at $3,000. /it was during one of his sum- 
mer excursions that he discovered Ichthyorms dispar, a bird with teeth and 
bi-concave vertebrae. He severed his connection with the College in February, 
1874, on account of a serious disagreement with the new management. Like 
his collaborators, Pres. Joseph Denisori, Land Agent I. T. Goodnow, and 
Prof. H. J. Detmers, he did not believe in industrial education and manual 
training, and resisted the efforts in reorganizing the College of the newly- 
appointed Board of Regents and Pres. John A. Anderson, to the extent of 
leaving his classes and going to Topeka to interview the Governor on these 
matters. The new management was victorious, and Professor Mudge left the 
institution where for eight years he had labored so unselfishly and intensely. 

The last years of his life he spent chiefly in making collections for Pro- 
fessor Marsh, of Yale College, and thus brought before the scientific world 
many new and rare discoveries. On Friday, November 21, 1879, the Profes- 
sor was engaged with his friend Dr. Blachly, of Manhattan, in geologizing on 
Bluemont ridge north of the city, exercising himself violently with pick and 
shovel. Upon his return he sat down to read with his family, when, feeling 
a pressure in his head, he stepped out-of-doors to take a walk, and died there 
of apoplexy. # 

Professor Mudge has been called the prince of collectors in the West. He 
discovered over 80 new species of the fossil flora, and an equally large num- 
ber of species of the fossil fauna. In 1871, the eminent naturalist, Professor 
Lesquereux, said of him: "He is the only truly scientific geologist west of 
the Mississippi river." 

To him the State of Kansas owes its first comprehensive geological map ; 
and it was a proper acknowledgment of her indebtedness to his unselfish life- 
work, when, after his death, in 1879, his name was engraved in one of the 
wall panels in the Hall of Representatives at the State Capitol, and the 
Academy of Science erected a massive granite monument upon his grave, 
overlooking the College building from a neighboring hill. 

APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1863-1873. 

During the presidency of Mr. Denison, the College received appropria- 
tions by the State to the amount of §77,468.85. There were appropriated, 
exclusive of pay of Regents, Land and Loan Agents: 

For 1864, $2,802.25 

For 1866, 3,316.50 
For 1867, 18,011.10 

For 1868, 6,420.00 

For 1869, 8,919.00 

For 1872, 15,000.00 

For 1873, 23,000.00 



20 Kansas State Agricultural College. 



In miscellaneous appropriations for 1871, the College was given $2,700, 
but the amount, for reasons not known to the writer, was never drawn. 
Quite the reverse seems to have happened in 1866. In the Session Laws of 
1867, page 3, section 2, it is seen that there was loaned to the College in 1866 
the sum of $5,500, but the Laws of 1866 contain no act making such appro- 
priation. The Auditor's books show that it was for deficiency of professors' 
salaries for the years 1864, 1865, and part of 1866. 

In the appropriation act of 1867 a condition was inserted, viz.: "The said 
sum to be taken and deemed a loan from the State of Kansas to the State 
Agricultural College, to be reimbursed to the State after the State shall have 
been reimbursed for the $5,500 lent to said College for the year 1866." 

An act approved March 1, 1870, contains the following: 

Wheeeas, The State of Kansas has heretofore advanced as a loan from time to 
time the several sums necessary to pay the salaries of professors in said College, thus 
complying with the condition that the institution should go into active operation 
within a limited time, and securing its benefits to the earlier pioneer settlers in the 
commonwealth: therefore, 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas: 

Section 1. That the several sums advanced to pay the professors in the Kansas 
State Agricultural College from the year 18f>3 to the year 18(5!), inclusive, be and the 
same are hereby donated to said College, together with all interest that may have 
accrued on said sums: Provided, That the amount hereby donated shall be used as 
the Board of Regents of said College may direct: to purchase additional lands for 
the College farm; to erect buildings; and to develop the Agricultural Department of 
said College: And provided, That the sum of $1,500 may be appropriated from said 
donation for the purchase of a proper set of arms and accoutrements for the use of 
the drill class in the Military Department required by law in said College. 

Sec. 2. The Treasurer of the Board of Regents is hereby authorized to pay upon 
the orders of said Regents an amount equal to the sum donated by this act to said 
College out of any interest upon the endowment fund that may at any time be in 
his hands in excess of orders then due for professors' salaries: Provided, That if any 
order drawn upon said Treasurer on account of the donation made by this act shall 
not be paid on presentation, said Treasurer shall indorse thereon, "Not paid for want 
of funds;'' and any order thus indorsed shall bear interest at the rate of 7 per cent, 
per annum until paid. 

Immediately after the approval of this act, the Board of Regents had en- 
graved or lithographed 364 pieces of scrip, so-called "College greenbacks," of 
the denomination of $100 each, made payable at different times for a period 
of eight years, beginning July 1, 1870. These orders were used in purchas- 
ing the farm and supplies for the same, for boarding-house repairs, and for 
improvements of various kinds. On December 22, 1871, the issue of this 
depreciated paper was stopped by the Board of Regents, but the $33,700 al- 
ready issued proved a serious burden to the institution for many years, on ac- 
count of the high rate of interest which prevailed at that time in Kansas. 
The greater part of this obligation ($28,258.23) was paid in 1874 and 1875 
— i. e., after the reorganization — but the remainder drew interest until 1881, 



Columbian history. 



21 



when President Fairchild succeeded in convincing the Legislature that it was 
their duty to provide for its cancellation. 

The Board of State Commissioners, in their reports for 1873 and 1874, in- 
timate that the existence of the College greenback was the result of the inca- 
pacity of the management, and the Legislature placed the charge heavily upon 
the shoulders of President Denison and his associates ; but it should be re- 
membered that the State refused to make appropriations to the College for 
1866, 1870, and 1871, and that a public institution cannot, like certain or- 
chids, live on Kansas air and rain-water. As a State institution, it ought to 
have been sustained or abolished. 

IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN 1863-1873. 

The following is a short synopsis of the material signs of progress and 
growth during the period : A library of nearly 3,000 volumes was accumu- 
lated, chiefly through the efforts of Hon. I. T. Goodnow, who wrote hundreds 
of soliciting letters to Eastern publishers, philanthropists, and personal friends. 
In 1867, 80 acres of the farm were enclosed by a stone wall, a few acres hav- 




BOARDING HALL. 



ing previously been broken. In the same year a capacious student boarding 
hall was built by resident parties, but, proving a poor financial investment, it 
was afterwards urged upon the College. At the time of its erection the build- 
ing met an evident want ; but, costing the College over §10,000, at a time when 
this was financially embarrassed, the purchase was a misfortune. In 1875, 
when the College was removed to the new farm, the hall became entirely use- 
less, until, in 1889, after having been sold to a private party for $1,000, a fire 
devoured its rotten floors and roofs and calcined its crumbling walls. In 
1868, a forest plantation was commenced and an orchard planted. The former 
contained some 200 varieties of trees, many of which were entirely new to the 
prairie country, and have since then proved very valuable. The orchard was 
planted by Mr. Samuel Cutter, of Vinton, at an expense of 50 cents per tree. 
In the winter of 1868-'69, the Legislature made its first outright appropria- 



22 



KANSAS STATE A&BICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



tion, of $200, for the Agricultural Department, restricting its use to the pur- 
chase of plants, seeds, and agricultural implements. "As a matter of interest, 
it may be noted that the same Legislature appropriated $1,400 to furnish to- 
bacco to the convicts in the Penitentiary." In 1869, the broken portions of 
the farm were rented to Col. Frank Campbell, the steward of the College 
boarding hall. In 1870, Prof. J. S. Hougham, the first teacher of agriculture 
and chemistry, planted the first crop, consisting of oats, barley, and corn ; but 
"the oats and barley grew only six to eight inches tall, and the corn was all 
but destroyed by chinch-bugs." The next crop did much better, though. "In 
August of the same year the ground was sown to wheat, and in 1871 gave a 
yield of 431 bushels per acre." 

It had long become apparent to the Board of Regents that the dry and 
stony piece of upland upon which the College building stood was unsuited for 
the purpose of conducting agricultural and horticultural experiments. The 
humus crust was thin and poor, and the subsoil a perfect gravel bed, cemented 
together by a tough, yellow clay. The final result of many discussions of the 




BARN — AS IT WAS TO BE. 



matter was, that in July, 1871, two valuable tracts of land were purchased. 
One of these, the so-called " Ingraham place," consisting of 80 acres of very 
fine bottom land on the Wildcat creek, about two miles southwest of the 
College, was never used, but was sold in 1880. The other, adjoining the 
city of Manhattan, and containing nearly a quarter-section — a beautifully 
located tract of land — became the site of the present College. Of this, the 
northwest quarter, about 40 acres, was bought of Mrs. Preston, the widow of 
Prof. N. O. Preston, who, in February, 1866, had died from apoplexy in the 
class-room ; the northeast quarter, about 40 acres, was bought^rom Prof. E. 
Gale; and the south half, about 75 acres, was bought from Mr.' Foster. The 
total cost was $29,832.71 in scrip. The city of .Manhattan, frightened over 



Columbian History. 



23 



the repeated attempts of zealous friends of the State University, at Lawrence, 
to consolidate the Agricultural College with that institution, contributed 
$12,000, the result of a bond election. A solid stone fence was built around 
the whole tract, and the erection of a large barn commenced — a broad-cor- 
niced, massive-looking stone structure, with numerous wings, towers, stair- 
ways, elevators, and offices. The barn was never completed, however, and 
the finished west wing served its purpose for a short time only. It was after- 
wards, under Pres. John A. Anderson, turned into a class-room building, and 
still later, under Pres. Geo. T. Fairchild, into a drill hall and museum. 

In 1871, Fred. E. Miller was appointed Professor of Agriculture, and means 
were provided for the purchase of stock, teams, and implements. The founda- 
tion was laid for a herd of Short-horns, which still remains the pride of the 
College. In the following year a Veterinary Department was organized, and 
put under the management of Prof. H. J. Detmers, V. S., a German by birth 
and education, who has since then become an authority on the contagious dis- 
eases of the hog. The department was discontinued in 1874, for want of 
means and patronage. A Military Department, organized some years previ- 
ously, and provided by the Government with a teacher in the person of Brevet 
Gen. J. M. Davidson, met with the same fate. The Veterinary Department 
was not revived until 1888, when a chair of veterinary science and physiology 
was created. The Military Department fared some better, in dating its re- 
vival September 1, 1881. 



24 KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



IV. 

The Reorganization. — John A. Anderson Elected President. — 
Anderson's Maxims. — The New Education. — The Industrialist. 
— Characteristics of Anderson. 

TN accordance with an act of the Legislature reconstructing the governments- 
of the several State institutions, approved March 6, 1873, Governor Os- 
born, in the spring of that year, appointed a new Board. Soon afterwards 
President Denison resigned, and the vacancy was filled by the election of 
Rev. John A. Anderson, of Junction City. The result was a radical change 
in the policy of the institution. To this Board, counting among its members- 
such men as Dr. Charles Reynolds, post chaplain at Fort Riley, and J. K. 
Hudson, the founder of the Topeka Daily Capital, and to President Ander- 
son, the State is indebted for the conception and inauguration of the educa- 
tional policy which has placed the Kansas State Agricultural College near 
the head of the list of the land-grant institutions of America. 

JOHN A. ANDERSON. 

John A. Anderson was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, June 
26, 1834; graduated at Miami University in 1853, the room mate of Presi- 
dent Benjamin Harrison; studied theology, and preached in Stockton, Cal., 
from 1857 till 1862. Early in that year he entered the army as chap- 
lain of the Third California Infantry. In 1863, he entered the service 
of the United States Sanitary Commission, and his first duty was to act as 
relief agent of the Twelfth Army Corps. He was next transferred to its 
central office, in New York. When Grant began the movement through the 
Wilderness, Anderson was made superintendent of transportation, and had 
under his command half a dozen steamers. Upon completion of this cam- 
paign, he served as assistant superintendent of the canvass and supply de- 
partment, at Philadelphia, and edited a paper called the Sanitary Commission 
Bulletin. At the close of the war he was transferred to the historical bu- 
reau of the commission, at Washington, remaining there one year, collecting 
data and writing a portion of the history of the commission. In 1866, he 
was appointed statistician of the Citizens' Association of Pennsylvania, an 
organization for the purpose of relieving the suffering resulting from pauper- 
ism, vagrancy and crime in the large cities. In February, 1868, he accepted 
a call from the Presbyterian Church at Junction City, Kas., and remained 
its pastor until the fall of 1873, when he became President of the Kansas 
State Agricultural College, at Manhattan, which position he held until his 
election to Congress, in 1878. While President of the College, he was ap- 



HON. JOHN A. ANDERSON. 



Columbian History. 



25 



pointed one of the jurors on machine tools for wood, metal and stone at the 
Centennial Exhibition. 

The subsequent history of John A. Anderson is equally characteristic of 
the man. He served as member of Congress from this district until the 
spring of 1891. During the fall campaign of 1890, the Farmers' Alliance 
movement had withdrawn from the ranks of the Republican party much of 
the element which had elected and reelected him triumphantly in six consecu- 
tive elections. Anderson was not renominated, and refused to run " wild." 
The result was, that the Republican party, as well as its trustworthy leader 
in this district, lost a seat in Congress. Of the large number of congressional 
bills which were introduced and advocated by Anderson, may be mentioned 
the one reducing the postage of letters from 3 to 2 cents, and the one creating 
an Agricultural Department as a branch of the National Executive Govern- 
ment. In March, 1891, Anderson was appointed consul-general to Cairo, 
Egypt, and sailed for his new post on April 6 ; but his already enfeebled con- 
stitution could not endure the change of diet and climate. In the following 
spring he decided to return, and died on his home journey, in Liverpool, 
England. His remains rest in the cemetery near Junction City, Kas., by the 
side of his wife and parents. 

ANDERSON'S EDUCATIONAL MAXIMS. 

In a "Hand-book of the Kansas State Agricultural College," published in 
1874, President Anderson fully discussed his reasons for the changes made in 
the old system, a few of which are epitomized here: 

1. It is impossible for most people to find time to study everything that it is im- 
portant for some men to master. 

2. The subjects discarded, in whole or in part, by each separate class of students, 
should be those that it is supposed will be of least importance to them. 

8. Of those retained, prominence should be given to each in proportion to the 
actual benefit expected to be derived from it. 

i. The farmer and mechanic should be as completely educated as the lawyer and 
minister; but the information that is essential to the one class is often comparatively 
useless to the other; and it is therefore unjust to compel all classes to pursue the 
same course of study. 

6. Ninety-seven per cent, of the people of Kansas are in the various industrial 
vocations, and only 8 per cent, in the learned professions; yet prominence is given 
to the studies that are most useful to the professions instead of those that are most 
useful to the industrial pursuits. This state of things should be reversed, and the 
greatest prominence given to the subjects that are the most certain to fit the great 
majority for the work they should and will pursue. 

6. Most young men and young women are unable to go "through" college. 
Therefore, each year's course of study should, as far as practicable, be complete in 
itself. 

7. The natural effect of exclusive headwork, as contradistinguished from hand- 
work, is to beget a dislike for the latter. 

8. The only way to counteract this tendency is to educate the head and the hands 
at the same time, so that when a young man leaves college he will be prepared to 
earn his living in a vocation in which he has fitted himself to excel. 



26 



Kansas State Agricultural College. 



THE NEW EDUCATION. 

Adopting these views, the Board of Regents discontinued the school of 
literature and organized those of agriculture and the mechanic arts. Three 
new professorships were established, namely: Botany and entomology, Prof. 
J. S. Whitman ; chemistry and physics, Prof. W. K. Kedzie ; mathematics, 
Prof. M. L. Ward. In order to provide better accommodations for the stu- 
dents, the departments of instruction were removed from the old farm to the 
new one, where the finished wing of the barn was fitted up for class-rooms. 
Workshops in iron^ and wood, a printing office, a telegraph office, a kitchen 
laboratory, and a sewing room were equipped and provided with instructors, 
and 50 minutes of educational manual labor was added to the daily work 
of every student. Three years later the course of study was reduced to four 
years — i. e., the preparatory course was abolished, the teaching of Butler's 
Analogy, Latin, German, and French discontinued, and the requirements for 
admission lowered so as to connect the institution directly with the better 
grade of public schools. 

In order to fully appreciate the efforts of President Anderson with regard 
to the reorganization of the work of instruction, it seems necessary to take a 
glance at the educational reform movement in other parts of the country. It 
is a fact not generally known, and one of which Kansas and the friends of this 
institution may well be proud, that the Kansas State Agricultural College 
was among the very first free schools of college grade in the United States 
where systematic daily manual work became an obligatory branch of instruc- 
tion for all male students, and that it was the first institution of any kind in 
this country which reduced the minimum age of admission to such instruc- 
tion to 14 years. There had, of course, been numerous attempts to teach such 
work before, but it had either been made optional or else it was limited to cer- 
tain departments. In the Worcester Free Institute, founded in 1865, and 
opened in ^November, 1868, the shop work was made obligatory only to the 
students in the course of mechanical engineering, all of whom were above 16 
years of age. In the Industrial University of Illinois, shop work was pro- 
vided only for the students in the architectural department. In Washington 
University, at St. Louis, the preparatory or manual training school, which, 
through the writings and enthusiastic work of its dean, C. M. Woodward, has 
become the pattern for schools of the kind from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
and far beyond, and is usually considered as the pioneer institution that pro- 
vided systematic instruction in wood and iron work for all of its pupils, made 
the first experiments in this line in 1872. The work, however, was limited to 
the polytechnic departments, and the age of admission of the pupils to 15 
years, while the manual training school was not organized until June 6, 1879. 
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where the "father of American 
tool instruction," Pres. J. D. Runkle, developed the analytical system of shop 
work, an improvement upon the Russian system of Professor Delia Vos, did 



Columbian History. 



27 



not commence instruction in iron-work until the spring of 1877. The only- 
American institution, in fact, which gave daily shop instruction to all its pu- 
pils, previous to the reconstruction of the Kansas State Agricultural College, 
was the Stevens Institute of Technology, of Hoboken, N. J., created by the 
munificence of the great philanthropist, S. A. Stevens. It will be seen from 
these historic statements of the growth of tool instruction, that President An- 
derson was well in the front among the educators of the country who foresaw 
the coming educational changes ; that he was a leader rather than a follower. 

As might be expected, these changes of educational policy created some 
friction. Several members of the teaching force, disgusted with the reduc- 
tion of the purely literary branches of instruction, resigned, while others, re- 
sisting the reorganization, were discharged. Even the newly-called members 
were more or less opposed to some of the methods adopted, especially 
with regard to the reduction of the course of study from six to four years, 
and the abolishing of all instruction in Latin. The most intense feeling ex- 
isted for a while. The students, encouraged by the attitude of the retiring 
professors, held indignation meetings, while the citizens of Manhattan, con- 
sidering the fight largely their own, were split into irreconcilable factions — 
"for Latin" and "against Latin." Petitions were sent to the Board request- 
ing a change of policy in order to save the institution from certain ruin. 
The aid of the Governor was evoked to remove President Anderson, who was 
described as an educational charlatan, and a man of unrefined habits and 
manners; but the management remained firm. Gradually the storm sub- 
sided. The new members of the Faculty began to assert their influence ; the 
attendance did not fall off as had been predicted; the Legislature was sat- 
isfied with the change; and the "new education," though hardly more than 
an experiment as yet, had scored another victory. 

THE " INDUSTRIALIST." 

President Anderson was a prolific and vigorous writer. He defended his 
policy whenever and wherever he was attacked, and gave no quarter. A 
chief weapon during the struggle was the Industrialist, a small weekly, edited 
by the Faculty and printed by the Printing Department. The first number 
appeared on April 24, 1875, and the paper has been issued ever since. The 
salutatory stated that the Industrialist was issued in the interest but not at 
the expense of the Agricultural College; "in part, to afford the members of 
the printing classes regular drill in the work of printing and publishing a 
weekly newspaper; in part, to photograph the work of the several depart- 
ments of the Agricultural College, for the information of its patrons and the 
people; in part, to discuss the educational system and methods of Kansas 
from the stand-point of the rights and necessities of the industrial classes ; in 
part, to contribute, so far as it can, such practical facts of science as may in- 
crease the profit or pleasure of the farmers, mechanics or business men or 
women of Kansas." 



28 



KANSAS STATE AGRICULTUHAL COLLEGE. 



The Industrialist is now completing its 18th volume, and has become the 
pattern for dozens of educational papers in Kansas, though it has itself under- 
gone a number of changes since it was started, 18 years ago. In i877, the 
original three-column page was increased by one column, a change that 
nearly doubled its capacity. In 1889, it was again transformed into a three- 
column paper, but the size of the sheet was retained by increasing the width 
of the column; and in 1891 an arrangement was made by which the students 
share in the editorial work. 

ANDERSON AS A MAN. 

Of the hundreds of personal friends whom John A. Anderson had all over 
Kansas, none was better fitted, perhaps, to draw a vivid pen picture of his 
character than Noble L. Prentis, who, when the sad news of Anderson's death 
arrived in his home State, wrote the following in the Kansas City Star: 

•When I knew him first, he was pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Junction 
City. He was then in the prime of life — that was 18 years ago — living with his 
wife and children under the roof of his uncle and aunt, Col. John B. Anderson and 
wife, who had cared for him and his wife, who was a neice of Mrs. Anderson, from 
childhood. In those days I saw him day and night, and afterward, when he was, in 
1878, the first time a candidate for Congress, we made the canvass together, Mr. 
Anderson, George W. Martin, myself, and other gentlemen, including the late Judge 
Nathan Price, of the great district comprising all Kansas north of the Kaw and of 
the Smoky Hill, at the time the most populous congressional district in the United 
States, and one of the largest in area. Five hundred miles of the country in extreme 
northwestern Kansas was made in an ambulance hired, with the driver, at Beloit. 
The prairies were high and wide, and it was in the brown October, and the appoint- 
ments were far apart and there was plenty of time for conversation and reverie; and 
it was safe to say that, by the time the ambulance was back at Beloit and the rail- 
road journeying begun, there was very little that any member of the party had ever 
dreamed of in his philosophy that was not in the possession of his companions. All 
the facts and experiences of life, and all the theories concerning this life and the life 
which is to come, were discussed. 

In those days John A. Anderson spoke of all his life; of his student days at 
Miami; of his friendship there with Ben. Harrison, whom he remembered as a wrest- 
ler who would never give up or stay thrown; of his early days in California, when he 
was the Presbyterian pastor at Stockton, and built a church there; of his journeys 
in his own sail boat from Stockton to 'Frisco; of Starr King and Bret Harte, and the 
bright, young literary men he knew there; and of his work as a correspondent of the 
San Francisco Bulletin. Then he spoke of the outbreak of the civil war; of the di- 
vided state of things in California; of the division of his church, and the exodus of 
the Southern element from the church when he called, Sunday, on the god of Grant 
and Halleck and McClellan to bless the Union armies. He spoke of the raising of 
the "Bear flag" in Stockton, and the speedy cutting down of the same; and of his 
own enlistment as a soldier of the Lord and of the United States as chaplain of 
Col. Patrick Conner's Second California Regiment, and the march across the terrible 
Humboldt desert to Salt Lake and Camp Douglas. On some days the talk would 
turn on the sanitary commission, and his connection with it as its quartermaster at 
the "water base," wherever it might be, at City Point or elsewhere, following with 
his boats, as near as possible, the movements of the Army of the Potomac. More, 



Columbian History. 



29 



however, than any of these things, he dwelt on his coming to Kansas after the cruel 
war was over; when he could have had an Eastern church and a good, plodding, easy- 
time, and chose instead to come to Junction City, then a wide-open frontier place, 
marked by a distinct and plainly visible article of ungodliness; and how they built 
the fine Presbyterian Church; and how he planted about the wall the spreading 
ampelopsis, which grows there still; and how the work went on in the hands of about 
the gayest, heartiest lot of Christians, and with the least affectation of piety, that 
have ever been gathered in this world. 

After he went away to Washington, Kansas and his friends in Kansas saw less of 
him. His health and spirits were affected from the first by the air of Washington, 
and he got in the way of passing his vacations in a canoe on one of the northern 
lakes, with his eldest boy for company. He loved the wide waters, and was a sailor. 

He stayed long in Congress, but was far from being a regulation Congressman. 
He was not in the accepted sense a politician; I am not certain he liked politicians 
or that they liked him. He was not a good, strict, iron-bound party man. He did 
many things that the Republican party in Kansas never suggested to him. He ad- 
vocated measures that "reformers" and "labor men" might have advocated; but he 
never joined any society of laborers. He had theories of a better world even on 
this terrestial ball. Politicians believe in the life that now is, and do not think of 
good things in the future, or even of the day of judgment. He did. He was one of 
the few "anti-monopolists" who have ever lived who really took steps to get any- 
thing away from the monopolies — as lands they did not own, and back taxes. 

In the year 1885, the first great and crushing affliction of his life fell upon him. 
In the death of his wife, a most noble woman, he lost his best friend. He had known 
her all his life. She was his companion in youth, the support of his manhood. He 
kept on at his work in Congress for five years after, but a changed man. His bodily 
infirmities increased. He had lost his hearing in one ear in his youth from varioloid, 
and he became deaf in the other. He became indifferent, evidently, and made no 
fight to speak of for a renomination in 1890. After his retirement from Congress 
he went away to Egypt as consul-general at Cairo; perhaps with a sick man's hope 
of recovery in a change — in any change. In that country of wide, burning sands 
and dead monuments of the dead, he grew worse; at the last he hoped that life might 
be persuaded to stay by the air and the breeze of home, and died in the attempt to 
reach home. He was a remarkable man, in fact he was two men. He passed with 
the crowd for a rough man, careless of proprieties, sometimes of feelings. He was 
a clergyman; but he could not be persuaded to look and dress as some people think 
clergymen should. He hated a white neckcloth, he did not always reverence the men 
who wore them; but he was a sincere believer, from his mother's knee. None knew 
how gentle he was save the few who had felt the strong pressure of his great, warm 
hand, or seen his eyes fill with quick-coming tears. 

While Anderson is well characterized in the foregoing, there was one ele- 
ment in the man which Prentis failed to mention — his unflinching courage 
in meeting men and issues. The writer of this sketch, from his own experi- 
ence can add the following : 

In the spring and summer of 1877, the Board of Regents, at the instiga- 
tion of Anderson, considered the reduction of the course of study from six 
years to four years, and finally voted the change. There were several rea- 
sons for taking the step. In the first place, the common schools of the State 
had commenced to furnish much better-prepared candidates for admission. 

■ 



30 



Kansas State Agbicultvral college. 



Secondly, it seemed best to place the possibility of graduation before a large 
number of students, in order to retain them ; and thirdly, there was a dis- 
couraging lack of means — of class-rooms, laboratories, apparatus, teachers, 
and funds. The Faculty had debated the question in meeting and in private, 
and a majority were bitterly opposed to a reduction. Strong reasons were 
advanced by these, but a main reason for the opposition was usually left un- 
touched — the teachers of the studies that were to be cut out or pruned were 
afraid of losing their coveted high-grade work. The dissatisfied teachers, in 
secret meetings held during the summer vacation, finally prepared a care- 
fully-worded petition to the Board, asking for a reconsideration of the step. 

President Anderson had gone to Colorado for a mountain tour when he 
heard of the opposition of the leading members of the Faculty to what he 
considered a fixed fact, and returned in all haste. A Faculty meeting was 
called, and in less than 30 minutes the entire opposition was quashed. 

The professors were all in his office when he entered with a firm step, 
called the meeting to order, and stated its object: a discussion of the new 
course of study, for the purpose of asking the Board for its reconsideration and 
possible repeal. He then said that he had been informed that some members 
of the Faculty had concocted plans to have a Board meeting called behind 
his back. He wanted to know whether he was right ; and if so, why the gen- 
tlemen had not stated their objections openly, in the usual manner, and at 
the proper time. No one spoke. He then asked bluntly whether it meant 
"fight," and added, "if it means fight, you can have fight; just as much as 
you wish, collectively or individually." No one spoke. He then asked Prof. 
W. K. Kedzie for an answer, and the Professor began to apologize for his part 
in the insurrection. He was very sure that he felt kindly toward the Presi- 
dent, and had no idea of doing anything disloyal to the management ; he had 
not been in favor of a reduction of the course of study, but always respected 
President Anderson's motives, and could see some of his reasons. If he had 
known that the reduction of the course was an accomplished fact, he would 
not have signed the document. President Anderson replied that it was a fact, 
that it had been published, and that every one should have known that. Pro- 
fessor Ward was called next, and he made a similar apology. Professor 
Shelton, who had no private objections to the reduction, followed in the same 
strain, and the remaining members of the Faculty were equally certain that 
they had no objections now. President Anderson then jumped up from his 
reclining chair, thanked the Faculty for their frankness, assumed that all was 
settled now, spoke words of hope for the coming school year, told of his de- 
lightful fishing expeditions in Colorado, and adjourned the meeting. 




Is I 5^3^> 



COPT OF A 8TATHMHV MADE M 



professor %u L. ard 
to 

Itffoaoor 'r. ff, 3 ailgMj 



President Anderson hod his own notions about 
©ducat ion, fosoo aro setforth in Ids lavnd book. 
Ho probably, without consult ing the faculty to any 
Croat oxtont, formiated his ideas in the coups© of 
study which ho presented to the Board, Th© Board 
supposing that both the irosidont and faculty had pre- 
parod tids course autiioriaed its publication, I think 
just aft or GomxBWoiaont. For son© weeks wo had had 
no fao«lty aeotiags, the iieod of each dopartnont soeiasd 
to be acting each for iiiasolf • Very Soon after 
ca»»:«a-i»nt arost, .nderaon and his wife went to Colo- 
rado. Par qyself sd-though I know a groat uictake 
had boon xaad© in thus reducing the course of study I 
resolved to adopt the lai3Soa-fairo policy, fooling 
confident that sonethiog would have to be done. X 
waited patiently for'^onething to turn up." I was 
busy repairing ay liouso. One day Profs ;>helton and 
Kodslo eon© to n» wLuaro I was at work, and thoy asked 
ae what I thought of tho now oourse of study. I 
cautiously replied, for at that tiae tiiore was a lorjont- 
ablo lack of oonf idonce ajiong tlie osjabora of the faculty, 
in oach other. 1 supposed that Prest. Anderson had 
oonforrod with those MM in regard to tii© changes* I 
learned that he had not. Wo all agreed that the best 
interest of tlio institution required action. IJono of 
us had anything but kindly feelings towards the Prosidont 
but we folt that a groat alstoko ought to be corrected 
and wo called a Hooting of the faculty and discussed the 
situation. There wao perfect har.jony in all our 
actions. Ml asked the Sec. of the Board ^{aj, Adasas 
to call a neoting of tlio Board, This ho choorfully 
did. W# wont to work to propare a course of study a 
whioh wo liad ready tp present, when the Board should 
aoot, li all agreod that we would endeavor to so 
charge tho recently published course of study that we 
would not bo aslianed to work under it. Unless we 
could do it wo would resign end let the college go. 



I do Mi recollect about. tho laaoting in the office 
which Walters describe*. If we rwt # there was no 
such a oom»» no auch CNSw&rdioe shewn, Personally 
I told Anderson that wo wore working- for tlx© interests 
of the college. 

At the Board nocting the faculty stood firm, The 
Board suggested a oo^roaiao on the course of study, pi 
it was effective. The yielding was on too pert of 
the President, The Board saw |h*» the faculty was in 
the right and individimlly thanked us for the course, we 
pursued. 

Gov* Salter told s» that hia son Lew told him after 
lie reached iiosw that the Board try tliair actions had 
groatly injured the college* Hallowoll aald that 
v.hon lie received tho not loo of the laaeting* he concluded 
that lie .ould ana tain the Prealdent in tlio fight the 
faculty ware mking on hio, but ho found tl*at the faculty 
bad done tlio right thing. I think that Prcst. . ndor- 
eon was convinced that ho Ivsd .mde a ndetake. I do 
not think there was any bitterness afterword. 

How I think that miters had bettor either nodify 
hia otatenont very NMtftg or loavo it out altogether. 
It ia not true* It ie no credit to Prest. nderson. 
It is unjwt to those whose nanee he neat ions, There 
was no tiiought of calling a Board Decking in hia aba once. 
I don't think Anderson conferred with any aacber of tlio 
faculty in regard to tho courae of atudy ho presented 
to the Board* 

There load been no opportunity to present objections 
to that course of study* On the other hand when tho 
Board learned that tho faculty had not boon consulted 
they at once desired to adjust natters so that there 
should bo no rupture,, which was done, and don® happily, 
I think. 

You nay a end thia to altera and for his own oaks, 
I would urge hia to bo careful in his statotaents* 

Vihan I first road his account of the taoeting of 
tho faculty with ndorson after iilrs return f rota Colorado, 
I was indignant, but Kedzio was gone and Shelton ^aa 
abroad and I decided to say nothing* It was already 



printed, but I m not willing for hira to repeat it in 
ishat »jy be considered on authentic history of E.8»A.C, 
and I want you to toll bin ao« 

A» X oald I have no recollection of that nootingo 
I do not know «hore ■ 'altera got hie data* At th© tia» 
I adult that thore wao 00130 talk about town aa it was 
Sonorally known that the Board iicld a special Mooting & 
that EToet. ;uloraon \saa recalled fron Colorado* II© 
may bscro boon preaoafc* I do not roxaoiabor* I sliould 
lika to talk this natter over with bin. 



Columbian history. 



31 



V. 



President Anderson's Collaborators. — Legislative Appropria- 
tions and Permanent Improvements, from 1874 to 1879. — Pro- 
fessor Ward's Vice-Presidency. 

MONG the new members of the Faculty, none entered upon the work of 



reorganization with more zeal and sympathy, and assisted more effect- 
ively in bringing its practical work into favor with the farmers of the State, 
than Prof. E. M. Shelton, M. Sc., elected to the chair of agriculture in 1874. 

Edward Mason Shelton was born in Huntingdonshire, England, August 
7, 1846, and in 1855 came with his parents to America, settling in New York. 
In 1860, the family moved to Michigan. He received his education at the 
Michigan Agricultural College, graduating in 1871, and took a course of 
special study under Dr. Manly Miles. At this time an agent of the Japa- 
nese government was in this country, seeking men for the advancement of 
the agricultural interests of Japan, and through him Mr. Shelton was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the government experiment farm at Tokio. He 
was the first teacher of American agricultural methods and systematic farm- 
ing in Japan, and although ill health demanded his return to America at the 
expiration of a year, he left a strong impression upon the farming interests of 
that country. He next joined the Greeley colony of Colorado, but soon re- 
turned to his agricultural studies and investigations at the Michigan college, 
and from thence was, in 1874, chosen Professor of Agriculture and Superin- 
tendent of tbe Farm at the Kansas State Agricultural College, in which po- 
sition he remained until the 1st of January, 1890, when he accepted a call 
by the Governor of Queensland, Australia, to the honorable and responsible 
position of agricultural adviser to the government. His writings have been 
widely quoted, and his influence has been marked upon the trend of agricul- 
tural education. He was secretary of the State Short-horn Breeders' Associa- 
tion and of the National Association for the Advancement of Agricultural 
Science. 

Of other teachers who were elected during the presidency of Anderson, and 
are entitled to credit for assistance in the work of reconstruction, should be 
named Professors W. K. Kedzie, M. Sc., M. L. Ward, A. M., J. D. Walters, 
M. Sc., and G. H. Failyer, M. Sc. The two last named are still members of 
the Faculty. 

Prof. W[. K. Kedzie was the eldest son of the veteran teacher of agricult- 
ural chemistry at the Michigan Agricultural College, Prof. R. C. Kedzie. 
He graduated at that institution in 1879, took a special course at the Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale College, and became assistant to his father at Lan- 
sing, Mich., until his call to Manhattan, in 1873. Coming to the Agricultural 




32 KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



College of Kansas at the time of its reorganization, he lent valuable assist- 
ance in shaping the course of instruction, and giving the branches of chem- 
istry, mineralogy, geology and meteorology the prominent position which 
they deserve in the curriculum of such an institution. While here he wrote 
a small text-book, "The Geology of Kansas." In 1878, he accepted a call to 
Oberlin College, Ohio, and died in 1880, in the prime of his life. 

Prof. M. L. Ward was brought up on a farm, without early opportunities 
in school, but graduated from Hamilton College, N. Y., and afterward was 
ordained to the ministry in the Baptist Church. For some years he, with the 
assistance of Mrs. Ward, maintained a successful private academy at Ottawa, 
Kas., and from that was called, in 1873, to the chair of mathematics in this 
College. In this position, with many fluctuations of duties, he did faithful, 
■energetic work for 10 years, and often helped to hold together conflicting 
forces in the Faculty by combining earnest regard for the practical side of 
the new plans with an abiding faith in mental discipline as the foundation of 
all true education. During President Anderson's congressional campaign, 
Professor Ward was made Acting President, and, after leaving this College, in 
1883, he was called to the presidency of Ottawa University, where he still 
remains as a member of the faculty. 

Prof. John Daniel Walters was born in the canton of Solothurn, or Soleure, 
in western Switzerland, in 1848. He received his education in the German 
communal school of Aetigkofen, the French communal school of Dombresson 
in Val De Ruz, the high school of the county of Bucheggberg, and the can- 
tonal college of Solothurn. Being the graduate of a county high school 
( Bezirksschule), he entered the third-year class of the college and completed 
the six years' course in August, 1867. During the summer of 1865 he taught 
mathematical branches at Klingenberg, the well-known experiment station 
of Thurgovia. Two months after his graduation, he landed in New York 
without money or friends, or a knowledge of the English language. After 
working for a number of years as decorative painter, architectural draughts- 
man, newspaper editor, and private teacher, he was appointed to the position 
of teacher of drawing at this College, entering upon his work in January, 
1877. In 1883 he was given the degree of master of science, and two years 
later he was made Professor of the Department of Industrial Art and Design- 
ing. The Professor has taken much interest in the work of the National Ed- 
ucational Association. During the meeting of the association at Topeka, in 
1886, he was the acting secretary, and at the meeting the following year, in 
Chicago, the regular secretary of the industrial section. At the meeting in 
Nashville, in 1889, he read a paper on industrial education, and served on 
two different committees. He has also read papers before many of the differ- 
ent scientific and practical societies of the State, and has been for many years 
the chairman of the standing committee on landscape gardening in the State 
Horticultural Society. In 1891, he published a text-book on free-hand draw- 
ing for mature pupils. 



Columbian Hi s toby. 



33 



Prof. George H. Failyer was born ill December, 1849, on a farm in Ma- 
haska county, Iowa. When he was six years old his father moved to Page 
county, Iowa, then on the extreme frontier, and settled on a preemption 
claim. There he attended the public schools, and afterwards studied at the 
Amity Academy for two terms. In April, 1868, he accompanied his father 
to southeast Kansas, and took up a claim in connection with his father on 
the Cherokee neutral lands. From this time to September, 1873, he was en- 
gaged in the usual farm work of a new country. In September, 1873, he en- 
tered the third year of the (then) six-year course at this College, and graduated 
in 1877 — having found time during his course for special work in chemistry. 
After graduation, he taught school for one year in Chautauqua county, Kan- 
sas, and was called from there in 1878 to the chair of chemistry of his alma 
mater. In 1879, he received the degree of master of science. From the ne- 
cessities of the institution, the teaching of various other subjects has at differ- 
ent times fallen to his lot, especially mineralogy, physics, meteorology, and 
geology. In 1880, he spent a term in special study under Prof. E. C. Kedzie, 
at the Michigan Agricultural College. He has been one of the chemists of 
the State Board of Agriculture since 1879, has been president of the Kansas 
Academy of Science, and is a member of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. At the organization of the State Experiment Sta- 
tion, he was made chemist of the Station. He is the author of a hand-book 
for students in qualitative analysis, and the inventor of chemical apparatus 
and methods of some importance in this branch. 

STATE APPROPRIATIONS FROM 1874 TO 1879. 

During the six years of Mr. Anderson's presidency, the College received 
appropriations by the State Legislature amounting to $77,832.93, as follows : 

For the year 1874, $28,803.23 
For the year 1875, 13,675 . 24 
For the year 1876, 15,300 . 00 
For the year 1877, 7,774.46 
For the year 1878, 12,500.00 
For the year 1879, 1,500.00 

Of this amount, $30,182.92 was received for the purpose of canceling 
debts and accumulated interest, dating from the administration of President 
Denison (College greenbacks), and $48,650 for buildings, repairs, and equip- 
ments, especially of the farm and the newly-organized departments of wood- 
work, printing, sewing, and cooking. The endowment fund having reached 
a total of $100,000 at the time of Anderson's election to the presidency, no 
appropriations were required for meeting the running expenses. It is a fact 
of which the College can be proud, that from the time of its reorganization, in 
1873, to this day, the management never asked the State to contribute a sin- 
gle dollar, and never received a single dollar, for professors' salaries, or the 
ordinary expenses connected with instruction. 
—3 



1 



34 Kansas State Agricultural College. 



PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS FROM 1874 TO 1879. 

Of permanent improvements during Mr. Anderson's presidency, may be 
enumerated the building in 1875 of Mechanics' Hall, and in the year follow- 
ing of Horticultural Hall and the Chemical Laboratory — at the time of its erec- 
tion the best arranged, largest and most complete chemical workshop west of 
St. Louis. The laboratory was built after sketches by Prof. William K. Ked- 
zie, who, at his own expense, had visited central Europe and the East to study 
the arrangement and furnishing of chemical workshops. In 1877, the main, 
part of the present barn was constructed, after directions by Prof. E. M. Shel- 
ton. The corner-stone of the north wing of the Main College Hall was laid in 
1878, and this part of the building completed in February, 1879. 

In the summer of 1878, President Anderson was urged by leading Repub- 
licans of the (then) First Congressional District to become the candidate of 
the party for United States Representative. He accepted the honor, feeling 
that the work at the College requiring his peculiar bent of character, and 
which, perhaps, but few could have performed, was done. The institution 
was safe from reaction with regard to its course of study, secure from absorp- 
tion by the State University, and past the threatening specter of financial 
ruin. It had no name as yet among the institutions of learning of the land ; 
its attendance was small, its library insignificant, and its apparatus lacked 
much that was absolutely necessary ; but it had found its distinct sphere of 
usefulness. The debt, which in 1873 had amounted to over $42,000, was re- 
duced to $18,000 endowment and $6,000 current-expense fund. The pro- 
ductive endowment had grown to about $240,000, and the annual income 
amounted to nearly $20,000. Yet his election to Congress in November, 
1878, and consequent resignation in August, placed the Board in a perplex- 
ing situation. Where should they find a man whose previous work and train- 
ing would furnish a guaranty for success? There were plenty of candidates; 
indeed it seemed as if every defunct county superintendent or worn-out 
preacher in the State believed himself exactly the man to pilot the newly- 
rigged vessel 

"Through squalls and storms, 
O'er rocks and riffs." 

But no agreement could be reached until the following September, when a 
member of the Faculty suggested his former teacher, Prof. Geo. T. Fairchild, 
of Michigan Agricultural College, as a suitable man. Professor Fairchild 
was "called," came to Manhattan to make a personal examination of the con- 
dition of the College, and accepted the responsible position. 

IN 1878 AND 1879. 

Before entering upon a discussion of President Fairchild's aims and efforts, 
it seems proper to say a few words of the history of the period intervening 
between his election and the resignation of President Anderson. 



COLUMBIAN HISTOEY. 



35 



From February to December, 1879, and to some extent from the time of 
Anderson's nomination for U. S. Representative, the executive work of the 
College was faithfully performed by the Acting President, Prof. M. L. Ward. 
It was a trying year for the yet feeble institution. Against Anderson's wishes, 
the College naturally became the battle ground for much of the usual legiti- 
mate and illegitimate campaign work, and the target for his opposition. The 
Faculty, though loyal to the great trust, was not as harmonious as could have 
been wished, and there had been changes made in two of the chairs during 
the summer. All the officers were underpaid and overworked, and there 
was no chance to increase salaries or the teaching force, for the Legislature 
of 1877 had decreed "that not over $15,000 of the interest on the endow- 
ment fund shall be used to pay instructors or teachers in said College until 
the debts of said College be paid in full, and until said College shall refund 
to the State all moneys advanced by the State to pay for instructors and run- 
ning expenses of said College." In accordance with this " ukase," the salaries 
of the majority of the members of the Faculty had been reduced, in some 
cases as much as $400, while the work was constantly increasing in all direc- 
tions. In his department report for 1878-79, Professor "Ward said: "In the 
discharge of my duties as a professor, I will simply say that I have done as 
best I could under the circumstances," and a prominent friend of the insti- 
tution wrote: "It was a year of drudgery and heroic devotion to the cause 
and to the College, for which the Acting President and his collaborators re- 
ceived neither proper credit on the part of a wrangling Board, nor proper 
pay on the part of a rich State." 

The two instructors elected in September, 1879, were Prof. E. A. Popenoe 
A. M. and Sec. I. D. Graham, B. S., both of whom are still connected with the 
College. 

Prof. Edwin Alonzo Popenoe was born in 1853, in Montgomery county, 
Ohio, and received his primary education in the common schools and in the 
village high school in McLean county, Illinois. Removing, in 1869, to To- 
peka, Kas., he began in the following year a preparatory course in Washburn 
College, where he studied six years, graduating in the classical course in 1876, 
and receiving the degree of master of arts from the same institution a few 
years later. After graduation, he taught a year in the Shawnee county schools, 
and a second as principal of the Quincy school, in North Topeka, resigning 
the latter position in 1879, to accept the chair of botany and horticulture in 
the State Agricultural College, where his duties included the instruction of 
the classes in zoology and entomology, and the superintendence of the or- 
chards, gardens, and grounds. At the division of duties in 1883, he was as- 
signed to the chair of horticulture and entomology, which he still occupies. 
He is a member of the American Ornithologist's Union, a life member in the 
Kansas State Horticultural Society and in the American Pomological So- 
ciety, the vice-president for Kansas in the American Forestry Association, 
and secretary of the American Horticultural Society. He was for many 



36 



Kansas State Agbigul tubal College. 



years secretary of the Kansas Academy of Science, and is one of the official 
entomologists to the State Board of Agriculture. 

Ira Day Graham was bom in Vinton, Iowa, on August 29, 1856. Two 
years later his parents removed to Knox county, Illinois, where he grew up. 
He received the usual common-school training, and entered Abington College, 
Abington, 111., at the age of 16 years. From this college, he received the 
degree of bachelor of science, and in 1885, the honorary degree of master 
of arts, from Eureka College, Eureka, 111. After leaving college, he served 
several years as a telegraph operator and railroad agent, and taught several 
terms in the common schools of Illinois and Kansas. In 1879, he was elected 
Superintendent of Telegraphy in the Kansas State Agricultural College and 
held this position until 1890. He was elected Secretary of the Faculty in 
1881, and in 1884, when the office of Assistant Secretary of the Board of Re- 
gents was created, Mr. Graham was appointed thereto. In 1886, he was 
made instructor in book-keeping and commercial law, and in 1890, Secretary 
of the Experiment Station. He was for several years treasurer of the Kan- 
sas Academy of Science, and was one of the founders of the Kansas Dairy 
Association. * 




PRES. GEO. T. FAIRCH1KD. 



Columbian Uistoby. 



37 



VI. 

President Fairchild. — The Aims, Objects, Methods and Equip- 
ments op his Ideal Agricultural School. — A Period of Prog- 
ress. — Additions to the Faculty. — State Appropriations from 
1880 to 1892. — Improvements from 1880 to 1892. — Apparatus and 
Library. — Farmers' Institutes. 

T) RESIDENT GEORGE THOMPSON FAIRCHILD, A. M, was born 
in Brownhelm, Lorain county, Ohio, October 6, 1838. His father was 
a farmer and teacher. There were four sons and four daughters, of whom 
George T. was the youngest. He was educated at Oberlin College, graduated 
in the classical.course in 1862, and in the department of theology in 1865, and, 
though never a pastor, was afterwards ordained to the ministry of the Congre- 
gational Church. In the same year he was elected instructor in the Michigan 
Agricultural College, and the next year was made professor of English litera- 
ture, which chair he filled until his call to the presidency of the Kansas State 
Agricultural College, where he entered upon his work December 1, 1879- 
During a year's absence of the president of the Michigan college, Professor 
Fairchild had been acting president by choice of the board of regents. Presi- 
dent Fairchild is a prominent member of the National Educational Associa- 
tion, and has contributed several valuable papers to the published proceedings 
of that body. At the session at Saratoga, N. Y., in 1885, he was made a 
member of the National Council of Education and appointed to the commit- 
tee of technological education. At the meeting in Chicago, in 1877, he was 
made president of the industrial section, and in the following year, at San 
Francisco, he was reelected to the same position. In 1886, the Faculty of 
the Kansas State Agricultural College, in order to show him their apprecia- 
tion of his work, and to give him a fitting token of their esteem, presented 
him with a life directorship in the National Educational Association. In the 
American Association of Agricultural Colleges he has twice held the office of 
vice-president, and his services on important committees have had their di- 
recting effect upon that organization. One of his brothers, James H. Fair- 
child, was for many years president of Oberlin College, and another brother, 
E. H. Fairchild, president of Berea College, Kentucky. 

President Fairchild's views with regard to the "new education " were not 
as radical as those of Anderson had been. With President Anderson, the 
Agricultural College had been largely a station for pedagogical experiments, 
conducted with a view of producing convincing proofs of his theories on the 
value of manual training. With President Fairchild, the College became a 
model school for the education of young men and women who were to go 
back to the farm or workshop, not only to perform manual labor, but to live 



38 Kansas State agricultural College. 



complete lives and to develop and honor their calling. In an article on " Our 
Agricultural Colleges," written for the Chicago Farmers' Review, and subse- 
quently published by the Michigan State Board of Agriculture in their 
annual report, President Fairchild, then professor at the Michigan State 
Agricultural College, presented his ideal in such a characteristic manner that 
there could be no doubt in the minds of those who called him to Kansas as 
to his aims and methods. Other articles and papers, published during the 
last dozen years, and especially one on "Agricultural Schools: their Aims, 
Objects, Methods and Equipments," read before the council of the National 
Educational Association in 1888, show that his subsequent experience as the 
head of the Kansas institution but corroborated the views of the teacher in 
the Michigan college. The following is a synopsis of the Review article : 

THE IDEAL. 

In a brief notice of what our agricultural colleges ought to be, it may properly 
be assumed that they ought to be, first, what the name college implies everywhere 
now: places for the education of the young. Whatever service they may render in 
affording models for farming for the public, or in searching for new facts, princi- 
ples or applications in agriculture, must be secondary. The education which they 
furnish must be agricultural, in quickening and deepening a young man's regard for 
a farmer's life, while in every way making him more capable in such life. Learning 
and labor are to meet in a more profitable life upon the soil. With this understand- 
ing, it may be well to consider more specifically 

THE AIMS. 

Of these there are two classes, closely united: to develop the man in the farmer, 
and to develop farming through the man engaged in it. The first is to be sought 
in discipline — the genuine education of the youth. True scientific principles, which 
underlie all knowledge, are to be taught and enforced by a thorough drill in obser- 
vation. The eyes must see and the hands handle the very elements of nature, in order 
to gain proper ideas of nature's use. There must be a definite training to think ac- 
curately and connectedly, and intensely if need be. Thinking has made the world's 
discoveries and inventions, and it will always be the means of progress in any call- 
ing. Thinking to a purpose will always distinguish the able man and the efficient 
work, and our College will have missed its aim if it fails to furnish thorough train- 
ing to think. Added to this must be the formation of habits of ready action to a 
purpose. The thinking and doing are so closely united in farming that no one can 
neglect training in both. Often the only expression of the thought is the act that 
turns soil and seed, sunshine and shower, into produce. The college must aim at 
such a combination of thought and action, in its routine of drill for developing the 
best men for the work of making farming better. 

The second is to be sought through information. While this always accompanies 
discipline and directs the application of ability, it differs from'that just as the in- 
struction of a child how to drive a nail differs from the training which enables him 
to do it successfully. The College must gather and impart the best of instructions 
in the art of tilling the soil. It must gather from the history of this art, and from 
the failures and successes of practice and experiment, constantly, such facts as 
will make the strongest impression. By such means it aims to give higher ideals 
and stronger ambition to do excellent work. It stimulates discussion and compari- 
son of experiences, and encourages thoughtful consideration of future prospects. 



Columbian history. 



39 



It aims to be a center of information for a farming community through its instruc- 
tion to learners. So far as is compatible with thorough discipline and accurate in- 
formation, it aims to be a leader in further improvement of practice by new devices, 
but consciously preserves the difference between knowledge and supposition, fact 
and theory. Such aims suggest 

THE METHODS. 

Most prominent must stand a thorough course of study, long enough to establish 
principles and habits, severe enough to develop strength of mind, and so associated 
with agriculture as to cultivate enthusiasm for it. In this there must be systematic 
instruction by most approved methods in the sciences, training to logical inves- 
tigation of facts and principles, history and general knowledge of civilization 
enough to kindle inquiry, and technical training enough to give a general ability. 

This involves a drill in manual labor that shall make the hands ready and the 
eyes quick. That dexterity which comes from long practice in one routine is not 
desirable at this stage of education, if it were practicable; but a readiness to turn 
the hand to account in various directions is to be provided for by regular duty in 
real work, where pay and reputation and responsibility are thought of, and business 
rules apply, while a zest is given by connection with study and thought under com- 
petent oversight. These methods would bear a lengthy study, but we must hasten 
to connect with them 

THE MEANS. 

Among these we may place first a permanent endowment sufficient to insure the 
steady progress of the College through several generations. It should not be sub- 
ject to the fluctuations of whims from parties or people, but should be an in- 
vestment for posterity. "Art is long," and the work of education for the art of 
agriculture must be permanent, in order to be reached by all. 

Ample equipment of buildings, furniture and apparatus, farm and tools, is of 
course necessary. It must even be more ample than in most colleges. Science, to 
be made practical, must be learned with laboratory practice; technical instruction 
is worthless without abundant illustration and exercise; and working habits can be 
formed only by handling the tools. 

A competent faculty mast handle this machinery. The drill of such a college 
calls for greater ingenuity, if not for more general culture, on the part of the fac- 
ulty, than most college courses. This is not mere teaching, but teaching adjusted 
to a specific want in life. It calls for a practical energy in addition to sound doc- 
trine, for it deals less with authorities than with facts. New applications must keep 
them fresh in the life of toil which they are to elevate. The best in the land are 
none too good to hold the professorships in such a college, and should be found and 
kept if possible. 

Over all should preside an efficient and uniform control. The construction of 
this board should be such as to secure greatest stability with activity. Love for the 
work must inspire the members, and provident foresight direct them. The whiffling 
of popular sentiment for pork or mutton, for Short-horns or Jerseys, must only make 
their course more steady and true to that line of education for farmers' sons which 
may give taste and ability for an enlightened and progressive agriculture. 

A PERIOD OF PROGRESS. 

The arrival of Pres. George T. Fairchild gave a new impetus to the teach- 
ing force. The wish of the Faculty and the Board, that no radical changes 
be made in the policy, met with his fullest accord. Yet his rich experience, 



40 



KANSAS STATE A GBIO UL TUBAL COLLEGE. 



the result of similar work at the oldest agricultural school of the land, soon 
bore fruit in the adoption of improved methods of instruction and a better 
adjustment of work and existing means. The collegiate year was divided 
into three nearly equal terms, of 14, 12 and 11 weeks respectively, instead of 
two unequal terms as before. The course was strengthened by rearrangement 
of studies to logical connection; by systematic plans for connecting- practice 
with theory ; by introduction of stronger courses in place of elementary ones ; 
by more definite classification of students ; and by adding a term of psychol- 
ogy to the work of the fourth, and English literature and engineering to the 
work of the third year. The system of industrial training was broadened 
by distinct arrangement in shops, farm and garden, kitchen laboratory, dairy, 
and sewing rooms. The preparatory, or " B " first-year class, which had been 
organized in 1878 by Acting-President Ward, was maintained only for the 
benefit of students from the country over 18 years old who could not pass the 
entering examination. A scheme of Friday afternoon lectures and declama- 
tions was inaugurated, and weekly rhetorical exercises were added to the work 
of all classes. Monday afternoon Faculty meetings for the discussion of ways, 
means and discipline were organized. Standing committees on grounds and 
buildings, public exercises, social and literary entertainments, class grades, 
post-graduate work, farmers' institutes, museum, library, Industrialist, phys- 
ical exercise, etc., were appointed,, and a more comprehensive system of ac- 
counting adopted — the Secretary of the Faculty, Mr. I. D. Graham, being 
given direct responsibility for accounts with all funds and all departments. 

It is not possible, within the limited space of this sketch, to speak at length 
of the development of the College during the last 12 years. Many impor- 
tant phases, events or reforms must be overlooked entirely, while many 
others of a recent date have not had time to produce their intended effects, 
and can hardly be considered history. 

The number of students has increased almost every year, as may be seen 
from the following schedule : 



Year. Attendance. 

1878- 79 207 

1879- '80 276 

L880-'81 267 

1881- '82 312 

1882- '83 347 



Year. Attendance, 

1883- '84 395 

1884- '85 401 

1885- '86 428 

1886- '87 481 

1887- 88 472 



Year. Attendance. 

1888- '89 445 

1889- 90 514 

1890- 91 590 

1891- 92 584 



The senior classes show a similar increase. In 1880, the class numbered 
7; in 1888, 22; in 1889, 25; in 1890, 27; in 1891, 52; and in 1892, 36; 
while the present fourth-year class numbers 42. In other words, since 1879 
the number of students has increased nearly 200 per cent., and that of the 
graduating class has grown over 500 per cent. It is safe to state that 
there is no educational institution in the United States, no matter how richly 
endowed, that can show more favorable rate figures with regard to attendance 
for a period of over 12 successive years. 



Columbian History. 



41 



It is often claimed by the enemies of State institutions for higher educa- 
tion that all such schools are too local in their effect, and do not draw pupils 
from all parts of the State which is taxed for their support. It is not possi- 
ble, however, to maintain this charge against the Kansas State Agricultural 
College. Its students come from all over the State, from nearly every State 
in the Union, and from many countries abroad. Of the counties, Riley leads, 
of course, but a large number of students live in Manhattan and vicinity 
only temporarily, for the sake of college privileges. The following table 
shows the attendance by counties and States for the last 16 years — i.e., from 
1877 to 1892, inclusive: 



COUNTIES. 


1877. .. 


25 


~> 


i4 

00 


1881... 


1882... 


1883. . 


99 


oo 


1886... 


1887... 


S* 

go 


j 1889... 


h4 


1891 . . . 


JS92. ..1 


Total. 






1 


1 


1 


1 






3 












2 






10 










4 


3 


2 


2 






1 


3 




4 




2 


23 






6 


4 


1 








4 


3 






9 


' k' 


5 


2 




64 














^ 
1 
















2 






3 






1 




2 




1 


4 


1 


1 


i* 




2 




2 




2 


20 










.... 
1 


1 




2 








1 




1 


i 


2 


11 










1 






■ ■ ■ • 




2 


14 


g 


11 




3 


3 


j 


57 


Butler 


2 


5 


6 


7 


' a' 

D 




i 


1 


1 






3 




6 






57 




1 






3 


6 


1 




5 


4 






2 








3 


40 






4 


4 


1 


1 




3 


3 


4 






1 




1 




l 


29 




10 


18 


18 


13 


10 
1 




3 


3 


1 






2 








2 


89 
























1 




6 


10 


3 


9 


10 


18 




26 


26 




21 


10 


10 


10 


a 


10 


226 


Cloud 


1 


1 












3 


6 


g 




2 


2 


1 






53 




3 


3 










2 


2 


Q 




2 




3 


K 




40 






3 


3 


5 


* 






9 


7 






6 


g 


' 7 


9 


2 


72 




J 
1 


2 


2 


1 








2 






3 










17 
















1- 


1 


2 










1 






7 


Dickinson 


a 


5 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


6 


5 


4 


D 


4 


o 


6 






67 
















1 






2 


1 




2 


3 


l 


16 










1 


1 


.... 
4 


• 


2 


3 






3 




a 


Q 


2 


31 


Elk 








1 






• ■ • ■ 


1 


4 






4 


i 


1 


3 


3 


30 


























1 


3 


a 


1 




7 






2 


1 




2 


2 


1 


1 




2 


2 




a 


2 




17 




















1 






2 




l 


2 


"8 


9 




1 


1 


1 








1 














i 


1 


1 


7 




2 


2 




2 


1 


4 


7 


6 


6 




4 


3 


1 


l 


5 


5 


49 


































1 


l 




13 


5 


6 


9 


9 


6 


15 


16 


6 


7 


5 


6 


13 


8 


13 


10 


146 
























3 


3 
























3 


2 




3 


4 


3 


15 
































1 




1 




3 


2 


1 


7 


3 


6 


2 




1 


1 


3 


4 


1 


1 


1 


"3' 


39 






















1 






3 


3 


2 


2 


11 






1 


1 








2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


14 






2 


2 


3. 


6 


6 


2 


2 


1 


8 


4 


10 


4 


6 


2 


10 


62 




3 


4 


4 


6 


11 


14 


2 


6 


4 


7 


12 


9 


12 


21 


9 


16 


140 




2 


1 


1 


2 


11 


6 


10 


8 


10 

8 


7 


7 


3 


2 


2 


72 




3 


10 


8 


11 


5 


2 


8 


5 


2 


2 


6 


11 


13 


13 


107 
















1 


2 


4 


1 




1 


1 


2 


12 


























1 


s' 




1 


2 


7 




6 




1 






3 






1 




3 


3 


2 


i' 


4 


2 


25 
































1 




1 




3 








2 


5 


4 


1 


8 


4 


5 


5 


4 


i 


5 


'5' 


62 






1 


2 




2 




3 






1 


1 


3 




l 


2 


4 


20 




1 






i 








1 




8 


7 


7 


5 


n 


4 


2 


47 




6 


7 


7 


4 


6 


2 




3 


'a' 


3 


4 


3 


4 




4 


2 


56 








1 


1 


2 


"i' 








1 


1 


4 




2 


1 


14 


Marshall 


3 
1 


4 

3 


2 


4 
1 


2 


3 
3 


5 
2 


6 
5 


7 
4 


5 
2 


10 
4 


9 
4 


11 

5 


u 

8 


9 
8 


10 
9 


102 
61 
























3 










1 


4 










1 








1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


3 


4 


2 


1 


18 




1 


4 


2 


2 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 




3 


1 






10 


7 


48 


Montgomery . 




4 


3 


. 2 




1 




2 




4 


2 


1 


"a 








21 










3 




1 


"i 


8 


"e 


3 


6 


6 


4 


9 


7 


4 


58 




2 


6 


6 


5 


"i 


2 


1 


4 


2 


5 


9 


4 


5 


2 


4 


11 


69 




2 


1 


2 


















1 




1 


3 


1 


11 




















1 




1 


1 


"i" 




3 


1 


8 










1 










1 






1 


1 




1 


2 


7 


Osage 


2 


1 


2 


1 




2 


6 


6 


18 


5 


5 


6 


9 


9 


7 


24 


103 



42 Kansas State agbioultuhal College. 



COUNTIES. 


hi 

CO 

~i 


Co 
Co 


1879... 


hi 

Co 
ca 


1881... 


hi 

CO 

8 


1883... 


Co 

Kh 


1885... 


CO 
o> 


Co 
~i 


CO 
CO 


Co 
CO 


. 

Co 

(a 


hi 
CD 

hi 


1892... 


Osborn© 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


7 


5 


7 


3 


11 

g 


7 


g 


5 


5 


Ottawa 




3 ■ 


3 


5 


6 


5 


14 


12 


12 


g 


12 


3 


9 


6 


Pawnee 












1 


1 


1 




1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


Phillips 


3 






1 




1 


"l 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 




5 


2 


3 


Pottawatomie 


13 


10 


6 


g 


6 


7 


12 


16 


15 


11 


9 


22 


30 


24 


26 


29 


Rawlins 












2 


1 


1 
















1 


4 


2 


1 




1 








1 


Republic 




1 


1 










2 


5 


9 


12 


9 


5 


6 


1 


4 


Rice 


2 


x 






2 


1 




3 


5 


5 


4 


1 


3 


4 


4 


4 


Riley 


88 


64 


65 


77 


77 


90 


ioo' 


112 


99 


121 


133 


147 


149 


174 


198 


181 


Rooks 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Rush 










1 








1 




3 




1 




4 


4 


Russell 


1 
















1 


"i* 


2 


"i' 






5 


8 






2 


2 




6 


3 


l 


3 


5 


i 








1 


1 


2 


Sell '■'wick 


3 


1 


1 


2 


2 




3 


2 


2 










1 


4 


Shawnee 


7 


7 


8 


27 


13 


16 


13 


11 


12 


9 


12 


10 


13 


21 


38 


32 


Sheridan . 








1 


1 


Sherman 
































1 


Smith 






1 




1 








1 


2 


2. 


3 


1 




i 


6 














"i" 


"i' 




1 


1 


1 


2 
































1 
















2 


2 


1 


1 


2 




6 


1 


3 


3 


2 




5 


8 


4 
































2 










1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


1 


1 






2 




1 


2 




9 


10 


6 


10 


20 


16 


14 


17 


13 


18 


17 


16 


19 


19 


23 
1 


22 
1 
















1 


5 


11 


2 


2 


4 


4 


7 


6 


10 


8 


8 


6 






2 


3 


2 


1 


1 




3 


5 


7 


4 


4 


5 


5 


2 


3 
















1 


2 


1 


2 






5 


5 


6 












2 


1 


1 


2 




2 


4 


10 


7 


6 


7 


2 



STATES. 


Co 
~a 
~1 


CO 

~i 
CO 


hi 
Co 
- ( 

to 


hi 

Co 
Co 


1881.. . 


1882...] 


Co 
Co 
oa 


hi 

Co 
Co 


hi 

& 
CO 
Oi 


9° 

Co 
OS 


Co 
•a 


hi 
CO 

Co 


CO 
Co 
CO 


1890... 


1891... 


hi 

CO 
CO 

t* 


Total. 




















1 


1 








1 


1 




i 














3 


1 






1 








1 






6 




















1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


9 


Colorado 


2 










1 


1 




1 


2 


3 


1 






1 


3 


15 
13 
4 














1 




4 


3 


2 




1 


1 


1 






























1 






1 


2 


Holland 






























1 




1 






1 


3 


2 


1 


4 


1 


1 


7 


10 

3 


3 


7 


4 


2 


"3' 


49 
30 
15 
2 






1 


1 


1 




1 


5 


3 


3 


3 






6 






Indiana 


1 


3 






"l 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 




2 




























2 






















1 


2 


1 






















5 




3 


4 


1 


5 


3 


3 


4 


6 


10 


10 


14 


7 


6 


8 


9 


6 


' 98 
1 


























1 


































"i' 


1 

2 










2 


























1 










2 


1 


4 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 


3 


4 


7 


35 
5 






















1 


2 


2 










1 






1 




4 


5 


2 


1 


1 


2 




1 

2 


2 


1 


1 


22 
19 
S 




4 


2 


2 


1 




1 


2 




1 




2 


"a" 




































1 


1 












2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 










1 


"2' 


14 

28 




















4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


2 


5 


2 




2 


1 


1 






1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


3 


2 










16 

3 






























1 


2 


































1 


"i 


2 






























1 




1 


2 


Utah 




















1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


S' 




10 
2 
















1 


1 










































1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


5 
































1 




1 


Wisconsin 














1 




















1 






1 






























1 






1 
















1 


1 










3 






1 


1 






1 


















2 



Columbian History. 



48 



THE FACULTY. 

This'phenomenal growth made necessary an increase in the teaching force, 
and this again made possible the assigning of the work of instruction to spe- 
cialists. Among the teachers of special sciences or arts who were added to 
the Faculty during this period, and who have identified themselves with the 
peculiar work of the College, are : Mrs. Nellie S. Kedzie, M. S., a graduate 
of the College and its present matron, who took charge of the Department 
•of Household Economy and Hygiene in the fall of 1882; Prof. W. A. 
Kellerman, Ph. D., who was elected to the chair of botany in the fall of 
1883; Prof. David E. Lantz, M.S., who became teacher of mathematics 
and surveying in the fall of 1883; Prof. Oscar E. Olin, who was called 
to the chair of English language and literature in 1886; Prof. Alexan- 
der B. Brown, A.M., who was elected to take charge of the Music Depart- 
ment in the fall of 1886 ; Prof. Ozni P. Hood, B. S., who entered upon his 
work as superintendent of the shops and teacher of mechanics and engineer- 
ing in 1887; Prof. Francis H. White, A. M., who became instructor of his- 
tory and constitutional law in the fall of 1 888 ; Prof. Charles C. Georgeson, 
M. S., who was called to the chair of agriculture in the winter of 1890 ; Prof. 
Ernest R. Nichols, A. M., who was made instructor in physics in the fall of 
1890 ; Dr. Nelson S. Mayo, D. V. S., M. S., who was elected Professor of Physi- 
ology and Veterinary Science in the fall of 1890; Prof. Julius T. Willard, 
M. S., a graduate of the College, who became Assistant Professor of Chemis- 
try in 1891 ; Prof. Albert S. Hitchcock, M.S., who was called to the chair of 
botany in the fall of 1891 ; and Prof. Silas C. Mason, M. S., a graduate of 
the College, who was made Assistant Professor of Horticulture in the summer 
•of 1892. 

Much of the success and growth of the College is due to the untiring efforts of 
these teachers, many of a reputation reaching far beyond the limits of the State 
or even the country. The annual reports of the several State and national 
societies for the advancement of pure and applied science give witness to the 
extended work carried on in the studies and laboratories of the College. Prof. 
W. A. Kellerman, who left the institution in the fall of 1891 to accept a 
call by the State University of Ohio, with promise of increased salary, pub- 
lished several books on his special branches while here, as "Elements of 
Botany," a text-book for schools, treating histology, vegetable and economic 
botany, and organography. At the time of its publication, in 1884, a critic 
in Science said : " It comes nearer to filling a serious gap in botanical litera- 
ture than any other thus far published." Also, " Plant Analysis, or Key to 
the Dichotomal Plan for Identifying Plants East of the Mississippi." Also, 
■"Analytical Flora of Kansas," and a " Kansas School Botany." The general 
mse of these works attests their value. The Professor also prepared numerous 
papers in various State reports, the two of special importance to Kansas 
being "The Kansas Forest Trees Identified by Leaves and Fruit" — the first 
work of the kind ever published in the United States — and the "Native 



44 KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



Grasses of Kansas." Prof. Geo. H. Failyer has published a hand-book for 
students of analytical chemistry ; Prof. Edwin A. Popenoe is the author of" 
several students' hand-books on entomology ; Prof. A. B. Brown has published 
a number of text-books on musical theory, and is the author of " Brown 's 
Chromatic Musical Charts;" Prof. J. D. Walters has published a text-book 
on free-hand drawing and designing, and Prof. Julius T. Willard is about to- 
publish a text-book on organic chemistry. 

STATE APPROPRIATIONS FROM 1880 TO 1892. 

During the presidency of Mr. Fairchild, the Kansas State Agricultural' 
College has received appropriations by the Legislature as follows : 



For the year ending: 

June 30, 1881 $20,729 09 

June 30, 1882 16,000 00 

June 30, 1883 13,500 00 

June 30, 1?84 6,500 00 

June 30, 1885 21,113 44 

June 30, 1886 11,600 00 



June 30, 1887 *5,800 00' 

June 30, 1888 17,328 79 

June 30, 1889 7,975 90 

June 30, 1890 8,525 28 

June 30, 1891 11,315 25 

June 30, 1892 6,824 99 

June 30, 1893 1,950 00 



In addition to these cash items, the College has received from the State 
the necessary printing and binding since 1883, and all needed fuel since 1889 
— privileges which, for the last few years, have aggregated between $2,000 and 
$3,000 annually. No appropriations were made for the year ending June 30,. 
1880, but in the following year the Legislature, in addition to the appropria- 
tion stated above, made provisions for the restoration by the State of $17, 
979.09 of endowment and income which had become lost to the College from 
various causes during the past 10 years, and which, according to the organic 
act, and with the agreement of the Legislature, the State was bound to re- 
place, so that the capital of the fund "shall remain forever undiminished."' 
The main part of the appropriations for this period was received for the erec- 
tion of the main College Hall and the extensive farm buildings. No appro- 
priations were asked or received for teachers' salaries or running expenses. 

IMPROVEMENTS FROM 1880 TO 1892. 

The most important improvement made under President Fairchild's ad- 
ministration is the finishing of the main College building, i. e., of its central 
part, in 1882, of its south wing in 1884, and of its chapel addition in 1887.. 
The building was planned by President Anderson in 1877, and owes its pe- 
culiar form of three separate wings or parts, connected by lower corridors, to- 
the expected difficulty of obtaining a sufficient appropriation by the Legis-_ 
lature for the entire completion in one fiscal period. The plans and superin- 
tendence were furnished for the principal structure by Architect E. T. Carr,. 
of Leavenworth, and for the chapel addition by Prof. J. D. Walters. Presi- 
dent Fairchild changed the original designs in several particulars, notably 
by adding an attic to the central part and a basement to the south wing — 
additions which, without materially increasing the cost, improved both the 



Columbian His toby. 



45 



•appearance and the capacity. The building as it now stands has cost about 
$70,000. 

Of other permanent improvements, may be named the erection, in 1885, 
of the President's residence, ultimately to become the residence of the Pro- 
fessor of Horticulture; the construction, in 1885, of the north wing of the 
barn, and the addition to this of the piggery, in 1886 ; the rebuilding of 
Armory Hall, in the same year; the placing in Mechanics' Hall of a steam 
•engine and a number of fine wood-working machines, in 1885-87; the build' 
ing of the greenhouse, in 1883; the enlargement of the chapel, in 1887; of 
the horticultural laboratory, in 1888, and of the horticultural barn, in 1889. 
The plans and superintendence for these buildings were furnished by Prof. 
J. D. Walters. In 1883 and 1884, the main roads of the farm were grav- 
eled, and in the spring of 1885 the grounds were platted for planting and 
future improvement in road building by a professional landscape gardener, 
Max. Kern, of St. Louis. In the same year a tract of 44 acres of land was 
added to the farm by purchase, 16 acres having been added some years 
previous. In the spring of 1891, another small tract of about four acres was 
bought. The College now possesses in two farms a total of 319 acres. 




THE PRESIDENT'S HOUSE. 



In 1888, the city of Manhattan built a very complete system of water- 
works, with a pumping station near Blue river, and a capacious double 
reservoir on top of Bluemont, a neighboring hill several feet higher than the 
tower of the main building of the College. In the following winter the Legis- 
lature appropriated $3,000 for an extension of the pipe line upon the College 
campus, and about the 4th of July, 1889, the buildings, greenhouses and 
lawns were supplied with an abundance of pure water — a considerable factor 



46 Kansas State Agricultural College. 



in the economy of the scientific and agricultural departments, and a safe- 
guard, in case of fire, for the buildings and other property, much of which 
could not be easily replaced. Another appropriation of $3,000, made by the 
Legislature of 1891, for a further extension of the water service, and for water- 
closets and sewers, has provided the College with a most complete water and 
drainage system. 

The same Legislature appropriated $4,000 for an addition to the mechanical 
workshops, for the purpose of providing the needed room for the extension of 
the course in iron work, and Prof. O. P. Hood, with characteristic inventive- 
ness and energy, and doing a large part of the work with his pupils, built a 
roomy, well-lighted and ventilated shop, mostly of stone and steel, which will 
be a model for its purpose for a century to come. 

The last inventory of the College enumerates the following lands, build- 
ings, and equipments: 



Total number of acres, 319. 
Acres under cultivation, 230. 
Acres used for experiments, 180. 

Value of lands. , $38,700 00 

Value of farm buildings 10,760 00 



Value of farm equipments $14,396 SO- 

Value of shops 11,500 00 

Value of shop equipments 13,115 38 

Value of all other buildings 114.350 00 

Value of all other equipments 99,137 78 



APPARATUS AND LIBRARY. 

Carefully-made purchases of scientific apparatus, and untiring efforts in 
gathering natural-history specimens, have gradually provided the different de- 
partments with equipments valued all together at more than $100,000. Much 
credit for this is due to individual effort of the professors. The rapidly- 
growing collections from the fields of zoology, botany, entomology, mineral- 
ogy and geology have cost the College almost nothing. Not even the Board 
of Regents, perhaps, are aware of the esprit du corps existing among the Fac- 
ulty with regard to this and other matters. The greatest need of a school of 
pure and applied science is, however, a large and well-selected library, and 
the establishment of this requires time and funds. 

The library is almost wholly the growth of the last 12 years. It was 
moved to its present quarters in the northeast wing of the main building 
from the northwest room of the old Bluemont College building, in 1878, by 
Acting President M. L. Ward, who was the Librarian from 1875 until 1883. 
It consisted at that time of less than 1,250 valuable and well-preserved books ; 
the remainder, some 800 volumes, were either entirely worn out, or they were 
works of almost no use or value — old Greek and Latin dictionaries and com- 
mentaries, religious monographs, sermons, old and poorly-printed fiction, Gov- 
ernment reports, etc. — a state of things not to be wondered at, when it is 
remembered that the greater part of the growth consisted of donations, solic- 
ited in the Eastern States by Pres. Joseph Denison and Agent I, T. Goodnow, 
and that during Anderson's presidency neither funds nor space were availa- 
ble for this purpose. Prom that time, however, there was rapid growth. 
Acting Librarian, Prof. W. H. Cowles, reported the number of books on the 



Columbian History. 



47 



shelves June 30, 1884, at 5,740 bound volumes, 1,300 pamphlets, and several 
hundred duplicates. A card catalogue of topics, commenced by Professor 
Cowles, was completed to date, in 1885, by the acting Librarian, Prof. B. F. 
Nihart. 

Prof. D. E. Lantz took charge of the library in September, 1886. His 
first report catalogues 6,572 bound volumes, 2,350 pamphlets, and 360 dupli- 
cates, valued in the aggregate at $10,358.51. In 1888, the number had grown 
to 7,453 bound volumes, 2,490 pamphlets, and 352 duplicates, with a total 
valuation of $12,172.04; and in 1890, to 9,749 bound volumes, 349 duplicate 
volumes, and 3,126 pamphlets — a total of 13,224. At present the College 
library consists of over 12,000 bound volumes and about 4,000 pamphlets, 
and is valued at over $21,000. It has been selected mainly with a view to 
supplementing the class-room instruction in the various departments and the 
work of the Experiment Station. One of the main endeavors of the Faculty 
has been to complete the sets of Government and State reports pertaining to 
agriculture, horticulture, finance, and education. Hundreds of letters were 
written to Government officers, in all parts of the country, soliciting such 
volumes. Sets of leading scientific and literary magazines were also com- 
pleted by picking up missing numbers or volumes wherever there was a 
chance. The books are indexed in a card catalogue, so that the resources of 
the library upon any subject may be readily learned. All students have 
free acess to the book-shelves, and may draw the books for home use, under 
simple and most liberal regulations. 

The College subscribes for the leading literary, scientific and agricultural 
journals ; while the principal daily and weekly papers of Kansas and many 
from other States are received in exchange for the College publications. All 
these are kept on file for the use of students and Faculty. 

The College has been designated as the depository of United States public 
documents for the Fifth Congressional District of Kansas. About 1,000 
volumes have already been received on this account. 

An approximate estimate of the number of books, including public re- 
ports and bound periodicals, by classes, is as follows: 

Classes. Vols. 

History 550 

Biography 450 

Geography and travels 300 

Dictionaries and cyclopedias 175 

Philology 100 

Education 300 



Classes. Vols. 

Agriculture 1,350 

Horticulture 500 

Mechanics and engineering 425 

Mathematics and astronomy 250 

Physics and meteorology 325 

Chemistry and mineralogy 300 

Geology 400 

Botany 400 

Zoology 300 

Entomology 125 

Physiology and sanitary science 250 

General science, proceedings. 500 

Military science 150 

Domestic science 75 

Political science , 325 

Bound magazines 1,250 



Law 80 

Administrative reports 540 

Public documents on deposit 920 

Fiction, including juveniles 240 

Essays and literary criticism 300 

Poetry 100 

Logic and philosophy 200 

Religion and morals 500 

Pine arts 200 

Miscellaneous 125 



48 



KANSAS STATE A GBIC UL TUBAL COLLEGE. 



The library is in constant use by the students and the members of the 
Faculty. The report of the Librarian for the school year 1888-89 gives the 
total number of books drawn for home reading by students at 6,777, and the 
total number for the school year 1889-90 at 7,898 — an average of over 15 
books per student. This does not include the books and magazines read in 
the library or reading-room, nor does it include the current numbers of peri- 
odicals of any kind, since these cannot be taken from the reading-room. 

The total of all State appropriations received for the library, up to date, 
is only about $6,000. It is greatly deplored by the friends of the College 
that the State Legislature of 1891 was not able to find means to appro- 
priate more than $250 annually for the next two fiscal periods for this pur- 
pose. A student of science without books is like a mill without water or a 
stove without fuel. The great need of this College, at this stage of growth, 
is undoubtedly in the enlargement of its library facilities — it is more books 
and maps, and a new library building. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

The Kansas State Agricultural College has, ever since its foundation, rec- 
ognized the farmers' institute as one of the best means to disseminate newly- 
discovered facts and methods pertaining to agriculture and horticulture among 
those directly interested. Short conventions of the farmers of the vicinity of 
Manhattan were held at the College every few months as far back as 1864. 
The first well-organized and widely-advertised farmers' institute under the 
auspices of the Faculty was held in Manhattan, January 2-10, 1872. It was 
well attended by representative farmers from all parts of the State. During 
Anderson's presidency little was done in this direction, chiefly because the 
newly-organized industrial departments demanded the undivided attention of 
the teachers; but upon the election of President Fairchild the College at 
once arranged for the holding every winter of at least six institutes, in as 
many different counties in the State, and increased the number a few years 
later to eight, and still later to 10. A permanent Faculty committee was ap- 
pointed to arrange with parties interested, and there has been a great deal of 
enthusiasm within and without the institution with regard to this practical 
work. The farmers' institute has proved a valuable means for strengthen- 
ing the tie between the College and its patrons, and for bringing the best ele- 
ment erf the youth of the State to its class-rooms. 

The institutes are usually held during the months of December, January, 
and February, at such times as may suit the convenience of the several lo- 
calities; but ap^ .cation is required by the 1st of November, if possible. The 
plan or programme of these gatherings is very simple. They are meetings of 
farmers and their families with the representatives from the College for mu- 
tual discussion and information upon matters of interest in farm life, includ- 
ing the home. Every interested person becomes a member of the institute by 
attending, and may share in all the proceedings. The officers are selected 



G OL UMBIAN His tor y. 



49 



simply to preside in the institute, that the best results may be reached. They 
are generally men of wide experience and ready suggestion. The institute 
includes four sessions, beginning Thursday evening and continuing through 
Friday morning, afternoon, and evening. This is as long a time as farm- 
ers can usually arrange to give to meetings, and gives the best results. 

The order of exercises is very simple, presenting usually not more than 
two subjects in each session. This is arranged beforehand by agreement be- 
tween a local committee and a committee of the Faculty, the one essential 
being that the community where the institute is held shall furnish one-half 
the papers or addresses, and be ready to take part in the discussions through 
questions and experience. The members of the Faculty take part in the dis- 
cussions as other members of the institute do. The local committee is re- 
quired to secure a convenient hall, large enough to seat a fair audience, and 
to take special pains to advertise the institute several weeks in advance. If 
possible, the local papers are engaged to share in the general interest, both 
beforehand and during the institute. If reports of the discussions and the 
local addresses can be published, the profit of the institute is very greatly in- 
creased and extended. The local expenses for hall, advertising, etc., are met 
by the institute. The College sends three or more members of the Faculty, 
paying all their expenses. 

During the last 12 years nearly 100 of such "College extension courses," 
as these institutes might properly be called, have been conducted under the 
auspices of the Faculty in different parts of the State. There were held four 
institutes in each of the counties of Franklin, Jewell, and Wabaunsee; three 
in each of the counties of Brown, Finney, Marshall, McPherson, Nemaha, 
Osborne, Johnson, and Rooks; two in each of the counties of Clay, Cloud, 
Coffey, Cowley, Ellis, Elk, Ellsworth, Ford, Jefferson, Linn, Marion, Osage, ' 
Rice, Shawnee, and Trego ; one in each of the counties of Atchison, Chautau- 
qua, Cherokee, Geary, Dickinson, Harper, Jackson, Mitchell, Montgomery, 
Ottawa, Republic, Russell, Sumner, and Washington. Some 15 or more in- 
stitutes, attended by one or two members of the Faculty, are not enumerated 
in the statement. In most of the counties where these institutes were held, 
permanent organizations for effecting such gatherings once a year or oftener 
have been formed, and the reports from all parts of the State show that the 
good work has been and is still kept up by local interest. The literary insti- 
tutions of the State feel elated over their lately achieved or still prospective 
success in university extension work ; the Kansas State Agricultural College 
rejoices equally in the accomplished success of similar work among the farm- 
ers, fruit raisers, and stockmen. 



—4 



50 



KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



VII. 

The Experiment Station. — The Hatch Law. — Station Bulletins 

and Reports. 

TF there is any section of the country that needs, more than any other, the 
painstaking assistance of the scientific agriculturist and experimenter, it. 
is the prairie and mountain region of the West, where a climate unlike that 
of the older part of the United States and the civilized countries of Europe 
makes the selection of new crop plants and the adoption of new methods of 
tilling and husbanding an imperative necessity. It is natural that this ne- 
cessity should have presented itself with great force to the managers of an 
institution founded for the purpose of educating the youth of the State for 
the vocation of the farmer. Experimental work in a small way, especially 
in the important field of forest planting, was commenced as early as 1868, 
and was continued, as far as the limited means permitted, by Prof. E. Gale, 
who for many years was the president of the State Horticultural Society. In 
1874, Professor Shelton commenced a series of very valuable experiments in 
the cultivation of tame grasses, continuing his observations of varieties and 
species under different forms of treatment up to 1889. Later on, experi- 
ments were made in subsoiling, listing, feeding, etc. The results were 
published in the Industrialist and in freely-distributed annual reports. Pro- 
fessor Popenoe, following his predecessors in the work of horticulture, made 
a series of experiments in arboriculture, grape growing, and vegetable gar- 
dening. This work was carried on chiefly at the expense of the College, 
though during the last dozen years the Legislature reluctantly assisted with 
a few paltry appropriations. In 1888, however, the work gained a new phase 
by the assistance of the General Government. 

The passage by Congress of the "Hatch bill," in March, 1887, provided 
for the organization in each State of a station for experiments in lines pro- 
motive of agriculture. The Legislature at once designated this College as 
the proper place for the station, and measures were taken for such work. It 
was found, however, that no appropriation had been made for carrying out 
the provisions of the bill, and accordingly little could be done until February, 
1888, at which time the appropriation was made. 

The law, named after Senator Hatch, of Missouri, who was its framer and 
promoter, is as follows : 

An Act to establish agricultural experiment stations in connection with the colleges established in 
the several States under the provisions of an act approved July 2, 1862, and of the acts supple- 
mentary thereto. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That in order to aid in acquiring and dif- 
fusing among the people of the United States useful and practical information on 



G OL TJMBIAN Hi 8 TOR Y. 



51 



subjects connected with agriculture, and to promote scientfic investigation and ex- 
periment respecting the principles and applications of agricultural science, there 
shall be established, under direction of the college or colleges, or agricultural de- 
partment of colleges, in each State or Territory established, or which may hereafter 
be established, in accordance with the provisions of an act approved July 2, 1862, 
entitled "An act donating public lands to the several States and Territories which 
may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and mechanic arts," or any of 
the supplements to said act, a department to be known and designated as an 
"Agricultural Experiment Station:" Provided, That in any State or Territory in 
which two such colleges have been or may be so established, the appropriation here- 
inafter made to such State or Territory shall be equally divided between such col- 
leges, unless the Legislature of such State or Territory shall otherwise direct. 

Seo. 2. That it shall be the object and duty of said experiment stations to con- 
duct original researches or verify experiments on the physiology of plants and ani- 
mals; the diseases to which they are severally subject, with the remedies for the same; 
the chemical composition of useful plants at their different stages of growth; the 
comparative advantages of rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series of 
crops; the capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation; the analysis of soils and 
water; the chemical composition of manures, natural or artificial, with experiments 
designed to test their comparative effects on crops of different kinds; the adapta- 
tion and value of grasses and forage plants; the composition and digestibility of 
the different kinds of food for domestic animals; the scientific and economic ques- 
tions involved in the production of butter and cheese; and such other researches or 
experiments bearing directly on the agricultural interests of the United States as 
may in each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions 
and needs of the respective States or Territories. 

Sec. 3. That in order to secure, as far as practicable, uniformity of methods and 
results in the work of said stations, it shall be the duty of the United States Com- 
missioner of Agriculture to furnish forms, as far as practicable, for the tabulation 
of results of investigation or experiments; to indicate from time to time such lines 
of inquiry as to him shall seem most important; and in general, to furnish such ad- 
vice and assistance as will best promote the purposes of this act. It shall be the 
duty of each of said stations, annually, on or before the first day of February, to 
make to the Governor of the State or Territory in which it is located a full and de- 
tailed report of its operations, including a statement of receipts and expenditures, 
a copy of which report shall be sent to each of said stations, to the Commissioner of 
Agriculture, and to the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. 

Seo. 4. That bulletins or reports of progress shall be published at said stations 
at least onoe in three months, one copy of which shall be sent to each newspaper in 
the States or Territories in which they are respectively located, and to such indi- 
viduals actually engaged in farming as may request the same, and as far as the 
means of the station will permit. Such bulletins or reports, and the annual reports 
of said stations, shall be transmitted in the mails of the United States free of charge 
for postage, under such regulations as the Postmaster General may from time to 
time prescribe. 

Seo. 5. That for the purpose of paying the necessary expenses of conducting in- 
vestigations and experiments, and printing and distributing the results as herein- 
before prescribed, the sum of $15,000 is hereby appropriated to each State, to be 
specially provided for by Congress in the appropriations from year to year, and to 
each Territory entitled under the provisions of section 8 of this act, out of any 
money in the treasury proceeding from the sales of public lands, to be paid in equal 
quarterly payments on the first day of January, April, July and October in each 



52 Kansas State Agricultural College. 



year, to the treasurer or other officer duly appointed by the governing boards of 
said colleges to receive the same, the first payment to be made on the first day of 
October, 1887: Provided, however, That out of the first annual appropriation so re- 
ceived by any station, an amount not exceeding one-fifth may be expended in the 
erection, enlargement or repair of a building or buildings necessary for carrying 
on the work of such station; and thereafter an amount not exceding 5 per centum 
of such annual appropriation may be so expended. 

Sec. 6. That whenever it shall appear to the Secretary of the Treasury, from the 
annual statement of receipts and expenditures of any of said stations, that a por- 
tion of the preceding annual appropriation remains unexpended, such amount shall 
be deducted from the next succeeding annual appropriation to such station, in order 
that the amount of money appropriated to any station shall not exceed the amount 
actually and necessarily required for its maintenance and support. 

Sec. 7. That nothing in this act shall be construed to impair or modify the legal 
relation existing between any of the said colleges and the government of the States 
or Territories in which they are respectively located. 

Sec. 8. That in States having colleges entitled under this section to the benefits 
of this act, and having also agricultural experiment stations established by law 
separate from said colleges, such States shall be authorized to apply such benefits to 
experiments at stations so established by such States; and in case any State shall 
have established, under provisions of said act of July 2d aforesaid, an agricultural 
department or experimental station in connection with any university, college or 
institution not distinctively an agricultural college or school, and said States shall 
have established or shall hereafter establish a separate agricultural college or school, 
which shall have connected therewith an experimental farm or station, the Legisla- 
ture of such State may apply in whole or in part the appropriation by this act 
made to such agricultural college or school; and no Legislature srfall, by contract, 
express or implied, disable itself from so doing. 

Sec. 9. That the grants of moneys authorized by this act are made subject to the 
legislative assent of the several States and Territories to the purposes of said grants: 
Provided, That payments of such installments of the appropriation herein made as 
shall become due to any State before the adjournment of the regular session of the 
Legislature meeting next after the passage of this act shall be made upon the assent 
of the Governor thereof, duly certified to the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Sec. 10. Nothing in this act shall be held or construed as binding the United 
States to continue any payments from the treasury to any or all of the States or in- 
stitutions mentioned in this act; but Congress may at any time amend, suspend or 
repeal any or all of the provisions of this act. 

Approved March 1, 1887. 

As soon as the news came that the President had signed the above bill, 
the StS$C Legislature passed the following concurrent resolution: 

Be it resolved by the Senate of the State of Kansas, the House concurring, That the 
annual appropriation of fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000), made available to the 
State of Kansas under the act of Congress for the maintenance of an experiment 
station for the benefit of agriculture, in connection with each college established 
under the act of Congress approved July 2, 1862, be and is hereby placed under the 
control of the Board of Regents of the Kansas State Agricultural College, subject 
to rules and regulations expressed or implied in the act of Congress above named. 

Approved March % 1887. 

These enactments placed $15,000 in the hands of the Board of Regents 



Senate Concurrent Resolution No* 27. 
Acceptance of the Hatch Aet by the state of Kansas 

The acceptance of the provisions of the Hatch 

aet by the legislature of Kansas was through Senate 

Concurrent Resolution No. 27. This resolution is 

not printed in the Laws of Kansas for 1887 with 

other legislative resolutions* The journals of the 

Senate and House show the following facts: 

Senate Concurrent Resolution Ho. 27. 

Resolved by the Senate, the House of Rep- 
resentatives concurring therein, 

That the annual appropriation of $15,000 
(fifteen thousand dollars) made available to 
the state of Kansas under the aot of Congress 
for the maintenance of an experiment station 
for the benefit of agriculture in connection 
with each college established under the act 
of Congress approved July 2, 1862, be and is 
hereby placed under oontrol of the Board of 
Regents of the Kansas State Agricultural Col- 
lege, subject to rules and regulations ex- 
pressed or implied in the aot of Congress 
above named. 

Adopted by the Senate under suspension Of the 
rules, March 4, 1887. Senate Journal 1887, p. 846. 

The House concurred in this under suspension of 
the rules, March 4, 1887. House Journal, 1887, 
p. 1130. This concurrence was reported to the 
Senate. Senate Journal, page 866. 



Columbian History. 



• r >3 



for use during the year ending June 30, 1888, and an equal sum for the year 
following. The organization of the Experiment Station was at on ce completed, 
and the work was begun. The general executive management of the Station 
was placed under the control of a Council, consisting of the President, the 
Professors of Agriculture, Horticulture and Entomology, Chemistry, Botany, 
and Veterinary Science. The President was made ex-officio chairman of the 
Council, and Prof. E. M. Shelton Director of the Station. The organic;_aef" 
permitted the use of one-fifth of the appropriation of the first year for build- 
ing purposes. From this source the experimental laboratory, with about 
2,400 square feet of propagating pits, was constructed. The Station is now 
well equipped with men and apparatus, and ranks among the most efficient 
in the country. 

Upon the resignation of Prof. E. M. Shelton, in January, 1890, the office 
of Director was discontinued, and the clerical duties heretofore connected with 
that office given to the Assistant Secretary of the Board of Eegents. The 
experimenting force of the Station consists at present of five professors and 
six assistants. Since its organization there have been issued 36 quarterly 
bulletins and four annual reports, the former containing current matter of 
general interest to farmers, horticulturists, and stockmen, while the latter in- 
clude data of all completed experiments, with brief references to those still 
in progress. All bulletins and reports are distributed free to those who ap- 
ply for them. The usual edition of the bulletins is 7,500 copies, but the 
general demand for information on certain subjects has frequently required 
much arger editions. 

a ae following is a list of the bulletins issued thus far : 

1888 — No. 1. Organization, Equipment, and Aims. 

No. 2. Experience with Cultivated Grasses and Clovers. 

No. 3. Life-History of two Orchard Pests. 

No. i. Experiments with Wheat. 

No. 5. Sorghum and Sorghum Blight. 

1889 — No. 6. Silos and Ensilage. 

No. 7. Experiments with Wheat. 

No. 8. Preliminary Report on Smut in Oats. 

No. 9. Experiments in Pig Feeding. 

1890 — No. 10. Notes on Conifers for Kansas Planters. 
No. 11. Experiments with Wheat. 

No. 12. Preliminary Experiments with Fungicides for Stinking nut of 
Wheat. 

No. 13. Experiments with Oats. 

No. 14. Winter Protection of Peach Trees, and Notes on Grapes. 
No. 15. Additional Experiments and Observations on Oat Smut, made in 
1890. 

No. 16. Experiments with Sorghum and Sugar Beets. 

No. 17. Crossed Varieties of Corn, Second and Third Years. 

No. 18. Experiments with Forage Plants. 

No. 19. Germination of Weeviled Peas — Garden Notes onPotatoes, Beans, 
and Cabbage. 



54 



Kansas State agricultural College. 



1891— No. 20. Experiments with Wheat. 

No. 21. Fungicides for Stinking Smut of Wheat. 

No. 22. Smut of Oats in 1891 — Fungicides for Loose Smut of Wheat — 

Spraying to Prevent Wheat Rust. 

No. 23. Smut of Sorghum and Corn. 

No. 24. Staggers of Horses. 

No. 25. Sorghum for Sugar. 

No. 26. Varieties of the Strawberry. 

No. 27. Crossed Varieties of Corn. 

No. 28. The Experimental Vineyard. 

No. 29. Oats. 

No. 30. Corn. 

No. 31. Sugar Beets. 

No. 32. Chemical and Farm Departments — Miscellaneous. 

1892— No. 33. Experiments with Wheat. 

No. 34. Experiments in Feeding Steers. 

No. 35. Actinomycosis bovis, or "Lump Jaw" of Cattle, and Observations 
upon Loco. 

No. 36. Experiments with Sorghum and Sugar Beets in 1892. 

The total number of bulletins and reports distributed by the Experiment 
Station during the five years of its existence reaches nearly a quarter of a 
million, and the demand for them is constantly increasing — a fact that 
speaks as well for the farmers of the State as it does for the work of the Col- 
lege. Yet much of the work of the Station — the greater part — has not 
been published, because nearly all field or garden experiments require the 
corroboration of several seasons before the results can be trusted. In a lab- 
oratory experiment, the manipulator can control the conditions to such an 
extent that a single test will usually determine the existence or non-existence 
of an anticipated fact ; but in the field, the ever- varying conditions of rainfall, 
wind, frost, drouth, insect pests, rust, etc., cannot be controlled or eliminated 
so as to give in a single season all the required data for the conclusions sought. 



Columbian History. 



55 



VIII. 

The College-Aid Bill. — The New Course op Study. — Post-Gradu- 
ate Work and Degrees. — The Industrial Departments. — The 
Faculty and the Board. — A Glimpse into the Future. 

r\N the 25th day of March, 1890, Senator Justin A. Morrill, of Vermont 
who in 1859 and 1862 had been the prime mover of the agricultural 
college land-grant bill, carried out his long-expressed intention of introducing 
a bill for " the more complete endowment and support of colleges for the ad- 
vancement of scientific and industrial education, and other purposes." The 
bill was at once referred to the committee on education and labor of the 
Senate of the United States. As soon as the welcome news reached the ex- 
ecutive committee of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and 
Experiment Stations, a meeting was called, in order to take active measures 
to urge its passage in the Fifty-first Congress. A sub-committee was ap- 
pointed, consisting of President Alvord, of the Maryland Agricultural Col- 
lege ; President Lee, of the Mississippi Agricultural College ; President Scott, 
of the Ohio State University; and President Smart, of the Purdue Univer- 
sity, to act on behalf of the association. This committee conferred with the 
Senate committee, and, after several conferences, succeeded in changing the 
original bill, which included provisions for aiding a large number of schools, 
and which in that form could never have become a law, to nearly its ultimate 
language. 

Yielding considerably to their opinion, although the common-school feature 
was a cherished part of his original plan, Senator Morrill prepared a new 
bill, and introduced it April 30, 1890, as a substitute for the former measure. 
On May 17 it was favorably reported, with amendments, from the Senate 
committee, and accompanied by a report which declared that the land-grant 
institutions had done as well as could have been expected, and emphasized 
that — 

Perhaps contrary to the general impression, the proper equipment of one of these 
colleges is far more expensive, being at least ten times greater than that of an ordi- 
nary classical institution. ... A college of agriculture and the mechanic arts is 
not a cheap affair. ... It will and ought to cost something. 

After being discussed on three consecutive days, and amended with regard 
to the clause referring to the equitable division of the appropriation in States 
where separate colleges for white and colored students had been established, 
the bill passed the Senate, on June 23d, by a practically unanimous vote. 

On the following day it was read in the House of Representatives and re- 
ferred to the committee on education, the committee returning it on July 
24, without amendment and accompanied by a report. On the 19th of Au- 



■ 



56 



Kansas State agricultural College. 



gust, under a special order, the bill was considered and passed, without a roll- 
call, by a vote of 135 to 39. One amendment, generally agreed upon and 
made known in advance, was adopted by the House, and in this the Senate 
concurred on the following day. The Kansas State Agricultural College 
may well pride itself with the fact that this amendment, limiting the appro- 
priation "only to instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English 
language, and the various branches of mathematical, physical, natural and 
economic science, with special reference to their applications in the industries 
of life," was unnecessary, since no instruction had been given in its class- 
rooms for years that did not conform with this definition of the meaning of 
the original Morrill act. 

The report of the House committee on education on the condition of the 
land-grant colleges, and the general status and educational needs of the in- 
dustrial classes, contained the following interesting paragraphs : 

It is no exaggeration to say that the institutions have more than justified the 
best anticipation entertained by their best friends. This is not to assert that they 
have in all oases been perfectly successful; but they have steadily adjusted them- 
selves more and more to the requirements of the new situation. They have 
gathered about themselves a large body of men whose training and experience 
have prepared them to give thorough and advanced instruction in modern science 
and its applications. They have collected laboratories, workshops, farms, and ap- 
paratus for illustration, experiment, and research. They have so far commended 
themselves to the people of their several States that large sums of money have 
been given to provide buildings and equipments suited to their needs, and they 
have turned out a body of men who, as teachers, investigators, and leaders of indus- 
try, rank well up with the same class of men anywhere in the world. According to 
recent reports of the United States Bureau of Education, they have now more than 
10,000 students under instruction, and their graduates are to be found taking high 
rank in every department of industry. In many States they have come to be 
recognized as leaders in scientific education, and have done much to create and 
mold that public sentiment which is now everywhere demanding that the education 
given in schools of every grade shall, without lowering its aim, prepare more directly 
for the actual pursuits of industry. Nor is it too much to say that their influence 
and example have contributed greatly to bring about the enlargement and reorgan- 
ization of scientific education in the older institutions of the country, thus bringing 
them more closely into harmony with the spirit and purpose of the age. 

One of the most serious drawbacks to the success of these colleges has been the 
fact that the grant of 1862 was based upon representative population. The result 
was that a small State or a new one received only a small grant, thus giving the least 
aid in places where it was most needed; and the grant was still further diminished 
by reason of so large a quantity of scrip being thrown upon the market at one time, 
thus reducing the average price to less than 60 cents per acre. The present bill 
wisely proposes to rectify this inequality by giving an equal amount to each State. 

Notwithstanding the prosperous condition of many of these institutions, the fact 
remains that almost every one of them is crippled for want of adequate funds. The 
meagerness of the original endowment has been supplemented, in many cases, as we 
have seen, by the action of the States, but in the great majority of cases the needs 
of the institutions have far outrun even the most liberal of such appropriations. 
The fact is recognized, in a general way, that the cost of maintaining scientific edu- 



Columbian History. 



57 



cation is far greater than that of maintaining literary or classical education. More 
numerous and larger buildings, more apparatus of every kind, and a larger teaching 
force, are constantly required, and the loss of apparatus and equipment by wear and 
tear is immeasurably greater. Moreover, the field of science find the methods of ap- 
plying it in practical life have so greatly enlarged within the last 25 years that none 
but the wealthiest institutions in the country have found themselves able even pass- 
ably to meet the requirements of the time. The government of every leading coun- 
try outside of the United States has recognized the necessity of providing on a large 
and generous scale for the establishment and maintenance of scientific instruction 
of every grade, from the primary to the highest, and it is everywhere regarded as 
one of the first duties of statesmanship to see that the citizens of the country are 
not left behind in the race of modern competition for lack of any resource that 
science can bring to their aid. The margin of profit in the competition of modern 
industries is so small and so closely calculated that the best instructed people will be 
the winning people. It seems not too much to hope that the Government of the 
United States will, to the slight amount provided for in the pending bill, strengthen 
the foundations it has already so wisely laid, and thus place itself abreast of the 
leading thought of the age. 

The act was approved by President Harrison, August 30, 1890, and reads 
as follows : 

An Act to apply a portion of the proceeds of the public lands to the more complete eudowment and 
support of the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts established under the 
provisions of an act of Congress approved July 2, 1862. t 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That there shall be, and hereby is, annually appro- 
priated, out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, arising from 
the sales of public lands, to be paid as hereinafter provided, to each State and Ter- 
ritory, for the'more complete]endowment and maintenance of colleges for the benefit 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts now established, or which may be hereafter 
established, in accordance with an act of Congress approved July 2, 1862, the sum 
of $15,000 for the year ending June 30, 1890, and an annual increase of the amount 
of such appropriation thereafter for 10 years by an additional sum of $1,000 over 
the preceding year, and the annual amount to be paid thereafter to each State and 
Territory shall be $25,000, to be applied only to instruction in agriculture, the me- 
chanic arts, the English language, and the various branches of mathematical, phys- 
ical, natural), and economic science, with especial reference to their applications in 
the industries of life, and to the facilities for such instruction: Provided, That no 
money shall be paid out under this act to any State or Territory for the support or 
maintenance of a college where a distinction of race or color is made in the admis- 
sion of students, but the establishment and maintenance of such colleges separately 
for white and colored students shall be held to be a compliance with the provi- 
sions of this act if the funds received in such State or Territory be equitably di- 
vided as hereinafter set forth: Provided, That in any State in which there has been 
one college established in pursuance of the act of July 2, 1862, and also in which 
an educational institution of like character has been established, or may be hereafter 
established, and is now aided by such State from its own revenue, for the education 
of colored students in agriculture and the mechanic arts, however named or styled, 
or whether or not it has received money heretofore under the act to which this act 
is an amendment, the Legislature of such State may propose and report to the Sec- 
retary of the Interior a just and equitable division of the fund to be received under 



58 



Kansas State Agbicultvbal College. 



this act between one college for white students and one institution for colored stu- 
dents, established as aforesaid, which shall be divided into parts and paid accord- 
ingly, and thereupon such institution for colored students shall be entitled to the 
benefits of this act and subject to its provisions, as much as it would have been if 
it had been included under the act of 1862, and the fulfillment of the foregoing pro- 
visions shall be taken as a compliance with the provision in reference to separate 
colleges for white and colored students. 

Seo. 2. That the sum hereby appropriated to the States and Territories for the 
further endowment and support of colleges shall be annually paid on or before the 
31st day of July of each year by the Secretary of the Treasury, upon the warrant of 
the Secretary of the Interior, out of the treasury of the United States, to the State 
or territorial treasurer, or to such officer as shall be designated by the laws of such 
State or Territory to receive the same, who shall, upon the order of the trustees of 
the college or institution for colored students, immediately pay over said sums to 
the treasurers of the respective colleges or other institutions entitled to receive the 
same, and such treasurers shall be required to report to the Secretary of Agriculture 
and to the Secretary of the Interior on or before the 1st day of September of each 
year a detailed statement of the amount so received, and of its disbursement. The 
grants of moneys authorized by this act are made subject to the legislative assent 
of the several States and Territories to the purpose of said grants: Provided, That 
payments of such installments of the appropriation herein made as shall become 
due to any State before the adjournment of the regular session of Legislature meet- 
ing next after the passage of this act shall be made upon the assent of the Governor 
thereof, duly certified to the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Seo. 8. That if any portion of the moneys received by the designated officer of 
the State or Territory for the further and more complete endowment, support and 
maintenance of colleges or of institutions for colored students, as provided in this 
act, shall by any action or contingency be diminished or lost, or be misapplied, it 
shall be replaced by the State or Territory to which it belongs, and until so replaced 
no subsequent appropriation shall be apportioned or paid to such State or Terri- 
tory; no portion of said moneys shall be applied, directly or indirectly, under any 
pretense whatever, to the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building 
or buildings. An annual report by the president of each of said colleges shall be 
made to the Secretary of Agriculture, as well as to the Secretary of the Interior, re- 
garding the condition and progress of each college, including statistical information 
in relation to its receipts and expenditures, its library, the number of its students 
and professors, and also as to any improvements and experiments made under the di- 
rection of any experiment stations attached to said colleges, with their costs and 
results, and such other industrial and economical statistics as may be regarded as 
useful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free to all other colleges fur- 
ther endowed under this act. 

Seo. 4. That on or before the first day of July of each year, after the passage of 
this act, the Secretary of the Interior shall ascertain and certify to the Secretary of 
the Treasury as to each State and Territory, whether it is entitled to receive its share 
of the annual appropriation for colleges, or of institutions for colored students, un- 
der this act, and the amount which thereupon each is entitled, respectively, to re- 
ceive. If the Secretary of the Interior shall withhold a certificate from any State or 
Territory of its appropriation, the facts and reasons therefor shall be reported to 
the President, and the amount involved shall be kept separate in the treasury until 
the close of the next Congress, in order that the State or Territory may, if it should 
so desire, appeal to Congress from the determination of the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior. If the next Congress shall not direct such sum to be paid, it shall be covered 



Columbian History. 



59 



into the treasury. And the Secretary of the Interior is hereby charged with the 
proper administration of this law. 

Seo. 5. That the Secretary of the Interior shall annually report to Congress the 
disbursements which have been made in all the States and Territories, and also 
whether the appropriation of any State or Territory has been withheld, and if so, 
the reasons therefor. 

Sec. G. Congress may at any time amend, suspend or repeal any or all of the 
provisions of this act. 

The passage of this bill, which increased the revenue of the College by 
from $15,000 to $25,000 per year, came just in time. The rate of interest, 
and with this the income from the endowment fund, had been shrinking for 
about five years, while the expenses had been constantly growing. In the 
spring of 1890, it seemed a question of only a short time when the institution 
would have to do one or the other of three very disagreeable things, viz. : Limit 
its usefulness in some direction, or collect a tuition fee from the students, or 
ask the State Legislature for an annual appropriation to meet a part of the 
current expenses. In the report for 1889-'90, the Board of Regents had said: 
"By strict economy, even by postponing provisions of urgent necessity, the 
expenses of the past two years have been kept within the limits of the in- 
come." Yet, there had been a small balance against the College for several 
years, partly due to the delinquency of some of the interest-paying parties, 
but partly also because the College was unable to keey> a sufficient working 
fund on hand between the dates that are named in the bonds for paying the 
semi-annual interest. In 1890, however, the College received $15,000 for the 
current year, and $16,000 for the year 1891, so that the deficit in the treasury 
could be covered, the most necessary equipments could be procured, and some 
additional teaching force could be engaged. 

NEW EQUIPMENTS. 

Among the means which this increase of the revenues of the College pro- 
cured, may be mentioned the equipment of the new machine shops and 
foundry, and the renewing of the hand tools of the carpenter shop. 

The Legislature of 1887 had added wood- working machinery to the amount 
of $1,000 to the simple hand tools that had been bought from time to time 
since the reorganization of the College in 1874. This appropriation was suf- 
ficient to procure, in addition to the 10-horse-power engine and 20-horse- 
power boiler already in the building, a fine double-column circular saw, a 
24-inch planer, a single-spindle friezer, a 34-inch band saw, four lathes, and 
numerous attachments. During 1890 the hand tools were increased to 220 
complete sets, placed in separate locked drawers under the work benches, so 
that now each student has a good kit of tools entirely in his charge. The 
equipment of the new machine shop and foundry has cost about $4,000. It 
consists of 16 forges, with a 30-inch exhaust fan, smoke connections, anvils 
and hand tools, a No. Collian cupola and blower, with ladles, hand ladles, 
core oven, flasks, etc., for an iron foundry, a brass furnace and 12 moulding 



60 Kansas State Agricultural College. 



benches, with flasks and hand tools for small brass work. A small upright 
engine runs the following tools: A 24"x24"x6' planer, four 14"x6' engine 
lathes, a 12"x5' brass lathe, a speed lathe, a 24" drill press, a sensitive drill 
press, a pipe cutter, emery wheels, and grindstone. Fifteen vises with 30 
locked drawers, each containing a complete kit of hand tools, are provided 
for hand work. 

Of other equipments bought from this source, may be named a fine collec- 
tion of samples of minerals, for the use of the classes in chemistry, mineralogy, 
and geology, a set of adjustable drawing tables for the Industrial Art De- 
partment, and a papier-mache horse for the Department of Veterinary Sci- 
ence. The mineralogical collection has cost about $1,100 and is one of the 
most complete in the country. 

THE REVISED COURSE OF STUDY AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AD- 
MISSION. 

In the spring of 1891, the course of study was strengthened by the addition 
of one more term in algebra, and broadened by an elective study in the last 
term of the fourth year. There were also made slight changes in the arrange- 
ment of studies. At the same time the requirements for admission were raised, 
so as to include the passing of an examination in arithmetic complete, and in 
the ordinary school history of the United States, in addition to the reading, 
writing, spelling, geography and English grammar required in previous years. 
Arrangements were also made to receive diplomas and certificates in lieu of 
entrance examinations, as follows : First, diplomas received on completion of 
a county course of study which has been approved by the Faculty, when 
properly signed by the superintendent; second, certificates of passing the 
grammar grade in any city with a course of study approved by the Faculty, 
when properly signed by the city superintendent; third, Kansas teachers' 
certificates issued by the county board of examiners. 

Provisions were also made, as in past years, for special classes in arithme- 
tic, grammar, and geography, suited to the advancement of applicants of ma- 
ture age who, for lack of advantages, are unable to pass the full examination. 
Young men over 18 years of age and young women over 16 are included in 
this provision, the object being to secure to such persons an opportunity to 
gain an education such as the common schools seldom provide for pupils of 
such age. 

Each student is expected to take three studies, besides one hour's daily 
practice in an industrial art ; and variations from this rule can be made only 
with the consent of the Faculty. 

Parallel courses are offered to both sexes, with such differences as their 
necessities seem to call for. The following gives the general scope of the two : 

FIEST YEAE. 

Fall Term Algebra. 

English Analysis. 
Geometrical Drawing. 
Industrial. 



Columbian Histoby. 



61 



Winter Term. . .Algebra. 

English Composition. 
Book-keeping. 

Free-hand Drawing three times a week. 
Industrial. 
Spring Term.. . .Algebra. 

English Structure. 
Botany. 

Industrial (Carpentry or Sewing). 

SECOND YEAE. 

Fall Term Geometry. 

Elementary Chemistry. 
Horticultural. 
Industrial. 

Winter Term. . .Geometry completed, Projection Drawing. 

Agriculture (Household Economy for the young women.) 
Organic Chemistry and Mineralogy. 
Twelve Lectures in Military Science. 
Industrial (Cooking). 
Spring Term.. . .Anatomy and Physiology. 
Entomology. 
Analytical Chemistry. 
Twenty Lectures in Military Science. 

Industrial ( Farm and Garden or Dairy). 

THIBD YEAE. 

Trigonometry and Surveying. 
Agricultural Chemistry. 
General History. 

Industrial ( Farm and Garden). 
Mechanics. 

Constitutional History and Civil Government. 
Rhetoric. 

Industrial. 

Civil Engineering (Hygiene for the young women). 
Physics. 

English Literature. 

Perspective Drawing two hours a week; Drafting two hours. 
Industrial. 

FOTTETH YEAE. 

Agriculture (Literature for the young women). 
Physics and Meteorology. 
Psychology. 

Industrial. 
Logic, Deductive and Inductive. 
Zoology. 

Structural Botany. 

Veterinary Science (Floriculture for the young women). 
Industrial. 



Fall Term 



Winter Term. . . 



Spring Term. . . . 



Fall Term 



Winter Term . . . 



62 



KANSAS STATE A G-BIC TIL TUBAL COLLEGE. 



Spring Term. . . . Geology. 

Political Economy. 

An elective in Agriculture, Horticulture, Mechanics, or related 
sciences. 
Industrial. 

A full synopsis of subjects treated and methods followed in all branches 
of the course may be found in the last annual catalogue. 

It will be noticed that the Kansas State Agricultural College is one of the 
very few liberal institutions of learning where daily educational manual la- 
bor forms a part of the programme for every pupil. Many schools have 
advertised the plan, some have experimented with it, but few have had the 
pedagogical wisdom, dexterity and energy to execute it on such a scale. 
They found it impossible to practice what they preached. 

Every encouragement is given to habits of daily manual labor during the 
College course. Only one hour of daily practice in the industrial departments 
is required; but students arc encouraged to make use of other opportunities 
for adding to their ability and means. 

All labor at the College is under the direction of the superintendents of 
the departments, and offers opportunities for increasing skill and efficiency. 
In regular weekly statements, the students are required to observe business 
forms and principles, showing from their daily account when and where the 
work was performed. 

The shops and offices are opened afternoons and Saturdays for the accom- 
modation of skilled students in work for their own advantage. Everywhere 
the student who works wins respect; and it is a matter of pride to earn one's 
way as for as possible. 

The labor of the students in the industrial departments is principally a 
part of their education, and is not paid for unless the student is employed 
upon work for the profit of the College. Students are so employed upon the 
farm, in the gardens or the shops, and about the buildings. The labor is paid 
for at rates varying with services rendered, from 8 to 10 cents an hour. The 
superintendents strive to adjust their work to the necessities of students, and 
give them the preference in all tasks suitable for their employment. So far 
as practicable, the work of the shops and offices is turned to account for their 
benefit; and the increasing extent of the grounds and sample gardens brings 
more of such labor. The monthly pay-roll of the College for the past year 
ranges from $250 to $400. 

Many students also work in the city or upon neighboring farms. 

In older to bring the College still closer to the classes for whose benefit it 
was founded, arrangements are nearly perfected to teach all branches of the 
course in every term. A farmer's son or young mechanic may then come to 
College from one to two or three terms per year, as his farm or business shall 
permit him, and complete the course before his twentieth or twenty-fifth year 
without disturbing the logical order of educational development. Another 
step in the same direction has been the organization of an annual short course 



Columbian history. 



63 



in practical science for farmers, dairymen, stock raisers, horticulturists, nur- 
serymen, and gardeners. The first of these courses, covering about 30 lec- 
tures by the Faculty and invited specialists, and lasting two weeks, will be 
given at the College during the month of February. It bids fair to become 
a complete success. 

THE BOARD AND THE FACULTY. 

The government of the College rests with a Board of Regents composed 
of seven persons, of whom one, the President of the Faculty, is ex officio, and 
the remaining six are members by appointment by the Governor, with advice 
and consent of the Senate. The term of office is three years. The Board 
have "full and complete power to adopt and enforce all necessary rules and 
regulations required under the law. They make all appointments of officers, 
principals, teachers and employes which may be required for the practical 
and economical management" of the institution. 

The Faculty of Instruction is at present composed of 22 professors and in- 
structors, four of whom are women, and is aided by 14 assistants and foremen. 
Four of the professors and eight of the assistants are graduates of the insti- 
tution. All the names may be found in the tables of chapter IX. 

STUDENTS, GRADUATES, AND POST-GRADUATES. 

During the 29 years of its existence, the College has received over 3,000 
students, about a third of whom were young women. Most of them have 
come from farmers' homes, and, after from three months to three years of 
study, have gone back to such homes without graduation. The catalogue of 
1892 publishes the following statistics: The number of graduates up to 1891 
is 284, of whom 95 are women. Graduates previous to 1877 pursued, with 
two exceptions, a classical course, and received the degree of bachelor of arts. 
Since 1877, all have received the degree of bachelor of science, after a four- 
years' course in the sciences, with good English training. 

Of the 189 men, 5 are deceased, and the remainder are reported in the 
following occupations : 



Farmers 84 

Fruit-growers and nurserymen 5 

Stock-raisers 2 

Assistants in Agricultural Exp'nt Stations. ... 4 

Assistants in U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 3 

Editors of agricultural paper 2 

Teachers and students of special sciences 10 

Veterinary surgeons 3 

Mechanics 4 

Civil, electrical and mechanical engineers. ... 9 

Contractors and builders 3 

Architects and draughtsmen 3 

General business men 8 

Merchants 9 

Printers 4 

Photographer 1 



Superintendents of public schools 11 

Teachers of public schools 24 

Students in other institutions 5 

Officers in army 2 

Observers in weather service 2 

Physicians and students of medicine 3 

Druggist 1 

Dentists 3 

Editors 9 

Ministers 5 

Lawyers and students of law 20 

Officials and official clerks 17 

Total 206 

In two occupations 22 



64 Kansas State agricultumal College. 



Of the 95 women, four are deceased, and the remainder are occupied as 
follows : 

Housewives 34 I Clerks or stenographers 4 

At home .s 8 ; Printer . . 1 

Milliner and dressmaker 1 

Assistant Librarian 1 

Hospital nurse 1 

Students In other institutions 2 



Assistant in Sewing Department 1 

Teachers of household economy 3 

Teachers in public schools 26 

Teachers and students of special sciences .... 5 

Teachers of music 2 

Teachers of art 2 



Total 91 



Before 1880 the College had not had occasion to give the second degree in 
course, and the conditions under which this academic honor could be ob- 
tained, or post-graduate work leading in this direction could he done, had not 
been formulated and publicly stated. In that year the Faculty adopted a code 
of rules and published it in the catalogue. Of the 284 students who gradu- 
ated up to 1891, 68 have pursued post-graduate studies under the adopted 
scheme, and 29 have been given the second degree. 

Arrangements can be made for advanced study in the several departments 
at any time. Special opportunity for investigation and research is offered at 
all times to resident graduates in agriculture and agricultural chemistry, 
physics and chemistry, horticulture and botany, zoology and entomology, 
mathematics, engineering, and drafting. Every facility for advancement in 
the several arts taught at the College is given such students, though they are 
not required to pursue industrial training while in such courses. 

OBJECT AND AIMS. 

The object and aims of the Kansas State Agricultural College cannot be 
better stated than by quoting from a paper on "Agricultural Schools," pre- 
sented before the council of the National Educational Association, at San 
Francisco, July 11, 1888, by Pres. Geo. T. Fairchild: 

The subject is one of especial interest now, because the question whether farm- 
ing must be left to less and less intelligent people as civilization advances is raised 
in all the older States, where the original type of a farming community is changed 
for a worse rather than a better. The same state of things in Europe is complained 
of, and accounted for, in part, by the fact that most of the schools enhance the curi- 
osity and interest as to the gay life of the cities, and add no zest nor interest to the 
handling of the soil or the feeding of a nation. 

Newspapers and books generally present a different ideal of life, and arouse for 
the plodding of the farm a disrespect and distaste, wholly detrimental to the pres- 
ervation of our national type. Our people ask, and rightly: "Are the schools doing 
all that ought to be done for a rural population, the conservatory of national char- 
acter?" Most of the education given in common schools is purely literary; for the 
smattering of science interspersed is studied in literary ways. It is knowledge 
about things, not of them. Hence, as the New York Evening Post remarks in a 
recent number, "It turns the child's thoughts almost wholly toward sedentary pur- 
suits, and to places in which men swarm." In the higher schools this bias is still 
more potent. Many are avowedly endowed, equipped and maintained as training 
places for the Christian ministry — all teachers being themselves ministers, and ex- 



Columbian His toby. 



65 



pected to exalt their calling at every opportunity. Others assume a wider mission, 
in preparing for the learned professions, including, besides preaching, the practice 
of law and of medicine, and teaching. Other technical schools, such as those of en- 
gineering, civil and mechanical, have had the same drift toward the teeming city and 
the wealth in trade. If these great intellectual centers have connected with them large 
elementary schools, as many of them have, in so-called preparatory departments, 
these are under the same manipulation in tone and trend and kind of information 
given, so that multitudes drop back into rural life, not simply unsatisfied, but dis- 
satisfied after their taste of learning. If the universities have no elementary schools, 
they seek to stretch their influence of the same kind over every village high school, 
and these again must furnish teachers of the same tone to rural neighborhoods. So 
the conservatism of education is in fact against the conservatism of a well-informed 
and educated yeomanry. 

Now, the presumption is that agricultural schools and colleges have their mission 
in checking this one-sided tendency. Though in the organization of our land-grant 
colleges, agriculture and mechanic arts were made coordinate, as the leading inter- 
ests, I prefer to consider now only their mission to agriculture. They have for their 
aim, then, the promotion of intelligence in farming, and a fuller appreciation of 
the ends, means and methods of agriculture as the basis of sound progress. 

Shall the higher type of farming and of farmers be sought through training a 
few experts in scientific agriculture, who, like doctors of physic, may dose to the 
suffering multitudes the needed potions and lotions and powders for debilitated 
farms? Or shall the multitudes themselves be inspired from these centers of infor- 
mation and thought, through a widely-extended elementary training in line with im- 
proved agriculture? The first thought would make the place of agricultural colleges 
beside other professional schools in the higher walks of a university, with barely the 
few students, training themselves for teachers, who are not borne along by the 
grand tide toward the learned professions. The second would seek to add to this 
occupation some of the charms of familiar acquaintance with its interesting facts 
and their relation to the world's work, from the early stages of education up. 

I believe in aiming at both the general interest, enthusiasm, and inquiry, and the 
special information of expert investigators in long and strong courses of technical 
training. We must build the better agriculture from what we have. To reach the 
farmers with any applications of science, we must train the coming generations in 
the elements of science. The youths from the farms must find in our schools of 
agriculture the stimulant to scientific thoughtfulness that prepares them for better 
farming. Farmers can never be much benefited by ready-made information till a 
generation is trained to appreciate it. In fact, the schools can serve the farmers 
only through the youth. 

A second fact stands patent. The results of research and experiment can be ac- 
cepted and utilized by those only whose training has somehow fitted them for such 
appreciation and adaptation to present wants. No one has failed to discover how 
relative to present knowledge all added information is. In agriculture, especially, 
the judgment needed to adopt, and adapt to varying conditions, any improvement, 
depends upon previous familiarity with a multitude of relations. For the problems 
of agriculture are indefinitely varied; similarity rather than identity rales. Until, 
then, a mass of the youth come under the influence of the fitting process, the range 
of useful information must be limited, and restrained to the advantage of a few. 

A third fact appears: That the moral and material support for thoroughly scien- 
tific inquiry can come from no other source than masses of men whose training 
suggests the need of advanced inquiry. The majority of untrained farmers ask 
for only the rough experiment that decides whether this or that seed will yield 
—5 



66 



Kansas State Agbicultdeal College. 



most; whether this or that method of plowing or cultivation costs least for the crop 
secured; or, as one who signed himself "A Would-be Farmer," wrote me a few weeks 
since, " Can I feed pigs on corn so that at six months old they will weigh 300 
pounds? If so, what breed of pigs on what kind of corn?" The actual underly- 
ing truths which make improvements possible they usually denounce as "flue- 
spun theories." Only as the leaven of youth awakened to the nature of science 
pervades the mass, can the means for higher investigations be secured. Experi- 
ment stations must be mere bureaus of ready-made information on the merest prac- 
tical judgments, unless a truly scientific bias among farmers can be secured. 

A fourth fact is beyond dispute: That the trained experts now willing and ready 
for these genuine investigations are largely the offspring of such elementary train- 
ing. As I run over in mind the corps of able direotors and assistants recently or- 
ganized into the 39 experiment stations provided for by Congress, I am met by this 
fact in almost every one. With a few notable exceptions among the older men, the 
multitude have come from the few, relatively, who have had this early training, or 
something akin to it. Many of the leading authorities in agricultural and horticul- 
tural matters have had their interest awakened by early education in the few such 
schools. For I must admit that the majority of the 39 endowed colleges of agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts have drifted with the tide into university departments 
or schools of technology. Yet the nation loots to the minority for its real leaders 
toward a more perfect agricultural knowledge. 

Accepting these facts as a foundation of certainty, I have studied the problem of 
adjustment between a genuine education in no narrow spirit of exclusiveness and 
such a body of information and thought as must preserve the natural, normal inter- 
est in all that pertains to the farm and the development of farm industry. Without 
a taint of opposition to either the objects or the methods of the high classical train- 
ing, I have watched the necessities of my problem with constantly-growing confi- 
dence in the solution which I try briefly to offer here. In my own mind the 
conviction is settled, that the true object to which all the forces of such an institu- 
tion should tend is 6uch discipline of body, mind and sympathies as shall give 
strength for the task of elevating agriculture, while the every-day surroundings add 
to the natural curiosity about seeds, soils, moisture, heat, germination and fertili- 
zation, variation in plant and animal, adaptation of parts and forces. In all of this 
there is abundant room for the truest discipline of perceptive powers, of judgment 
in all the phases of thought — comparison, abstraction, generalization, classification, 
and abstruse reasoning — and the most natural cultivation of memory and imagina- 
tion. Above all, the true philanthropy that seeks each man's good in all men's good 
should pervade the whole with the widest intelligence of the world's wants always at 
hand. To be more explicit, the object is neither to make a set of trained hands for 
the farmer, not even to graduate farmers, if you please, nor to follow established 
rules of discipline which lead the bulk of thoughts and sympathies away from the 
farm, but to give genuine education in the humanities through those elements of 
knowledge which touch humanity most. 

That such an object is definite enough to be distinctly gained, is proved by the 
work of several institutions of established fame, whose graduates are men of influ- 
ence, showing their discipline in just such humanitarian efforts as we seek. Whether 
farmers, physicians, lawyers, editors, or oven preaohers, their thoughtful sympathies 
reach to such work. 

To secure this object under the present conditions in most of the States, the fol- 
lowing methods are commended, upon the test of experience, verified by extended 
observation: 

First, Students must be able to reach the advantages of such an institution di- 



Columbian History. 



67 



rectly from their rural homes. Whatever preparatory training is needed must be 
given by the schools at home, if possible; if not, by the institution. Any required 
examination nt admission must be suited to the methods of the rural schools, and in 
no way is even a seeming advantage to be given to a city grading system as a means 
of access. Of all things, any form of recognizing preparatory schools which cannot 
readily apply to the common district school breaks the continuity between the ag- 
ricultural home and the agricultural college. 

Second, The course of study must present essential discipline in lines of most di- 
rect interest. The mother-tongue stands first as the key to knowledge, the instru- 
ment of clear thought, and the medium of influence. If circumstances indicate that 
such training can be best given by comparison with another related language, living 
or dead, it may be used, but always subsidiary to the native language. In general 
with the common methods of teaching, attention to English in all its simplicity and 
complexity, its derivations, combinations and growths and associations, within itself 
will give better results within an ordinary four-years' course than can be given 
through any mere smattering of other tongues. 

Of next importance, and coordinate in time, must be the discipline of perceptive 
and reasoning faculties through the science of nature, with abundant illustrations 
from the things which the students themselves have handled. Botany, chemistry, 
mineralogy, entomology, comparative anatomy, physiology, zoology and geology 
make a series so full of constant adaptations to previous curiosity as to give new 
zest to the problems of farm life. These applications may be wisely emphasized in 
special groups where information is given as to practical questions in raising and 
handling crops and domestic animals, trees, and garden vegetables, with the chem- 
istry of growth and decay, provided these groups are carefully adjusted to the mas- 
tery of elementary sciences. Of equal importance in the discipline is a series of 
lessons in such intuitions as purr and applied mathematics afford, with sufficient 
introspection to arouse interest in the processes of thinking, feeling, and willing, as 
well as in the results. With these, and illustrative of their bearing upon human wel- 
fare, there must be enough of history, including geography, to show the tendencies 
of civilization, if not the complex forces promoting it, and the essential principles 
of national economy and government. The grand essentials in all this are two: 
The principles shall be truly scientific, as broad as all the facts; the illustrations 
and applications shall fit into the life of the farmers' sons and daughters who study 
them. 

Third, All these studies should have awakened appetite for further research; but 
to cultivate this, outlines of study and investigation may be suggested, such as any 
careful student may follow. If these lead to a second degree, the incentive is 
stronger and the work more definite and original, therefore more practical as a part 
of real education. If, in these second, or post-graduate, courses, it is feasible to 
combine art with science and science with art, we have the best conditions possible 
for general advancement of agriculture by a truly trained body of workers all along 
the line. 

Fourth, It seems to me essential to such a plan of education that every youth 
should have his interest in the details of farming kept alive by some responsibility 
in actual service. Much of these details can be made instructive — illustrative of 
principles in the art and related sciences; but if it should be only indirectly so, the 
care and attention required in a few hours each week of ordinary manual labor 
makes real the lessons in agriculture. Even the friction of such a requirement may 
be turned to advantage in exalting the importance of a host of details, out of which 
most interesting problems grow. Such work brings the student into direct contact 
with improved methods and means, as well as with questions under investigation! 



68 



KANSAS STATE A QRIO TJL TUBAL COLLEGE. 



arouses curiosity and develops ingenuity, without which all the information of the 
cyclopedias is useless on the farm or to the farmers. It stands in the relation of 
laboratory practice to the chemist. 

Fifth, Special opportunities for the development of higher ideals, and better ap- 
preciation of the importance of a true agriculture, occur all through the course. 
The special courses of lectures show that it has a character — a body of principles. 
General lectures touch it on every side incidentally. Even strangers bear incidental 
testimony by their interest and enthusiasm. Societies, clubs and institutes find 
room for discussions of questions pertaining to prevailing practices and false no- 
tions. Science is not degraded but exalted by such association with actual, prac- 
tical illustrations. With such surroundings, any student of fair abilities is fitted by 
both interest and training to share in the gatherings of farmers and horticulturists 
with influence. 

But to accomplish all this there is required no mean equipment. Unity of pur- 
pose must be shown throughout, and unity in execution is equally essential. An 
essentially continuous board of control must maintain a settled policy, apparent in 
the whole equipment. Incongruities are as destructive here as in a theological semi- 
nary. Let me emphasize a few essentials by distinct enumeration: 

First, The location must be a farm in so far as growing farm crops, orchards, 
vineyards and gardens make a prominent part of the every-day surroundings. If it 
can be so near a town as to preclude all need of dormitories and consequent abnor- 
mal excitement, the gain is evident. For the interest of towns-people in such a 
farm, with all its possible attractiveness, gives the students a pride in their college, 
while the worst of gregarious vices and untoward influences are escaped. Moreover, 
the need of a multitude of regulations which diminish manliness in students is not 
felt. With homes among the towns-people, home life retains its influence. 

Second, The buildings should show their character as made for business. Class- 
rooms and chapel, library and reading-room, should be so adjusted to laboratories, 
shops, barns, greenhouses, as to express the combination of thought and labor, and 
the expectation that students may be called from one to the other as occasion offers. 
If all are so connected by a system of bells struck by an electric clock that all 
classes move in and out together, the unity is felt still more. 

Third, Every science must vie with every other for the best of apparatus, espe- 
cially in the lines of investigation and research. The liberal provision for the bota- 
nist, chemist, physicist, draftsman and zoologist must stand beside an equally liberal 
supply in shop and barn. But they must all be tools, not mere curiosities. 

Fourth, The live-stock of the farm must serve the purpose of the farm as a 
school. It must illustrate the breeds and the principles of breeding, and show that 
it has that purpose. While the idea of profit and loss can never be separated from 
good farming, it must here be confined to the handling of a given group of stock, 
or the manipulation of certain crops. To manage a school for profit would be to 
forget the object of the school; and such a farm is as truly to be managed for in- 
struction's sake as a chemical laboratory. Economical provision for instruction 
is the only profit to be thought of. 

Fifth, The working cabinets in all of the special sciences must be of the best; 
but their purpose, too, should appear. The great museum of every conceivable 
curiosity may serve a useful purpose as a stimulant, but it is also distracting. It, 
at times, serves for a place of harmless dissipation. The unity of a working cabi- 
net stimulates to thought and entices a student to definite inquiry. 

Sixth, Such a school needs a more stable and carefully selected faculty than an 
ordinary college. With the definite idea of applied science in a school, more instruct- 
ors are needed; and where one general purpose is to be served the unity of growth 



C OL UMBIAN HIS tob y. 



69 



is essential. Such a body of trained workers must have ways of sympathizing with 
and testing each other's work. Jealousies, if they arise, must be subordinated to 
the common interest by common responsibilities. The faculty, as a body, must 
control through their president, not the president over the faculty; for the voice of 
the least member must be heard for the whole. In this way unity in real interests 
may be maintained, and a symmetrical growth reached. 

Seventh, and Last, Some vital connection with the world of workers on the farms 
of the State is essential. It must be apparent always that the usefulness of the col- 
lege to the farming community is of chief importance. Its board of control must 
be representative men of the class to appreciate the needs and the work. The mem- 
bers of the faculty must be able to show their interest in the same work by meeting 
the farmers' questions upon their own ground. Farmers' institutes, where farmers 
and professors may "talk back" to each other in mutual interest, serve the purpose 
far better than elaborate courses of lectures from a platform controlled by the 
professors. Yet, beyond the possibility of such work, which, in the nature of the 
case, must be limited, the college must be a source of general information upon the 
topics most vital to successful farming. If occasional bulletins will answer such a 
purpose, let them be provided for, and let the stated reports be full and explicit 
from all departments of the work. In my own experience, a weekly issue of the 
college paper, edited by the faculty, and recording every item of growth or interest, 
has proved of inestimable advantage as a means of communication with patrons 
and the press of the State. Published at a moderate price to subscribers generally, 
it is sent free of charge to the parents of all students and to all newspapers, most 
of which recognize the courtesy by exchange. This has proven the cheapest and 
the best means yet devised of advertising in the right place, while it keeps the 
faculty as editors alive to the needs of the people whom they serve. 

A glance backward over the requisites named will show that all this provides a 
general rather than a technical education, but such a one as will best fit for such 
technical training as our purpose indicates, while one who stops short of the com- 
pletion of a course has gained in the very line of his best growth on the farm. In 
such a course, the sons of farmers and mechanics can work side by side to the ad- 
vantage of both. ■ With a slight variation in illustrative applications, the daughters, 
too, may have equal education in sympathy with the work of life. "With 500 such 
students, an institution of this kind becomes a power among the people. 



70 KANSAS S TA TE* A GEIC UL TUBAL COLLEGE. 



IX. 

Chronological Tables. — Board of Regents. — Secretaries, Treas- 
urers, Land Agents, and Loan Commissioners. — Faculty and 
Faculty Officers. — Superintendents, Instructors, Foremen,. 
Librarians, Preparatory Teachers, Lecturers. — Annual Ad- 
dresses. 

board of regents, 1863 to 1893. 



1863 Hon. G. W. Collamore 186a 

1863 Hon. D. P. Lowe, Fort Scott, 1864 

1863 Hon. A. Spanlding, ,. . . . • 1864 

1863 Hon. W. F. Woodworth, 1866. 

1863 Judge J. Pipher, Manhattan, 1868 

1863 Judge L. D. Bailey, Garden City, 1869' 

1863 Hon. S. D. Houston, Concordia, 1869 

1863 Rev. tT. G. Reaser, 1869- 

1863 Hon. T. H. Baker, 187G- 

1863 Rev. R. Cordley, Lawrence, . . . . . . . . 1871 

1863 Hon. Thos. Carney, Governor of State, ex officio, (deceased,) . . 1865' 

1863 Hon. W. H. H. Lawrence, Secretary of State, ex officio, . . . 1865- 

1863 Hon. I. T. Goodnow, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex 

officio, Manhattan, . . . . . . . . . 1867 

1863 Rev. J. Denison, President of the College, ex officio, .... 1873 

1865 Rev. E. Gale, Lake Worth, Florida, 1871 

1865 Rev. D. Earhart, Atchison, 1871 

1865 Hon. S. J. Crawford, Governor of State, ex officio, Topeka, . . 1868 

1865 Hon. R. A. Barker, Secretary of State, ex officio, ..... 1869. 

1867 Rev. P. McVicar, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio 

Topeka, . . 1871 

1868 Hon. E. C. Manning, Winfield, ) 1870- 

1868 Rev. Charles Reynolds, (deceased,) ....... 1874 

1868 Hon. N. Green, Governor of State, ex officio, (deceased,) . . . 1869 

1869 Hon. B. J. F. Hanna, Salina 1873 

1869 Hon. John McClenahan, Ottawa, 1873 

1869 Hon. O. J. Grover, Savannah, . . . . . . . . 1873 

1869 Hon. J. M. Harvey, Governor of State, ex officio, Riley, . . . 187S 

1869 Hon. Thomas Moonlight, Secretary of State, ex officio, Leavenworth, . 1871 

1870 Rev. R. D. Parker, Manhattan . . 1873-- 

1870 Hon. H. J. Strickler, (deceased,) ' . 187* 

1870 Hon. Alfred Gray, (deceased,) 1873 

1870 Hon. Geo. W. Higinbotham, Manhattan, * . 187& 

1871 Rev. L. Sternberg, Fort Harker, 1873- 

1871 Hon. Joshua Wheeler, Nortonville, ....... 1873. 

1871 ' Hon. Thos. A. Osborn, Governor of State, ex officio, Topeka, . . . 1873 

1871 Hon. W. H. Smallwood, Secretary of State, ex officio, . . . 1873 

1871 Hon. H. D. McCarty, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex 

officio, (deceased,) .......... 1873 



Columbian History. 



71 



1873 Hon. N. Green, (deceased.) 1874 

1873 Hon. J. K. Hudson, Topeka, 1875 

1873 Hon. Josiah Copley, Junction City, ....... 1875 

1873 Hon. James Rogers, Burlingame, (deceased,) ..... 1876 

1873 Hon. N. A. Adams, Manhattan 1878 

1873 Rev. Jno. A. Anderson, President of the College, ex officio, Manhattan, 

(deceased,) ........... 1879 

1874 Hon. Charles E. Bates, Marysville, . ' 1874 

1874 Hon. J. H. Polks, Wellington, . 1877 

1874 Hon. B. L. Kingsbury, Burlington, 1879 

1875 Hon. M. J. Salter, Thayer, 1877 

1876 Rev. J. Lawrence, Manhattan, 1878 

1876 Hon. A. H. Horton, Topeka, 1877 

1877 Hon. J. R. Hallowell, Wichita, 1879 

1877 Hon. T. C. Henry, Denver, Colo 1880 

1377 Hon. Stephen M. Wood, Elmdale 1883 

1878 Hon. L. J. Best, Beloit, . . . . . * -. . . . 1878 

1878 H»n. W. L. Challiss, Atchison 1881 

1879 Hon. E. B. Purcell, Manhattan, 1881 

1879 Hon. D. C. McKay, Ames, (deceased,) 1883 

1879 Hon. A. L. Redden, El Dorado, 1883 

1879 Rev. Geo. T. Pairchild, President of the College, ex officio, . . . 

1880 Hon. A. J. Hoisington, Kansas City, Mo., 1883 

1881 Hon. John Elliot, Manhattan, 1883 

1881 Hon. V. V. Adamson, Holton, 1883 

1883 Hon. F. D. Coburn, Kansas City, Kas., 1885 

1883 Hon. H. C. Kellerman, Burlington, 1885 

1883 Rev. Philip Krohn, Atchison 1885 

1883 Hon. C. E. Gifford, Clay Centre, • . 1885 

1883 Hon. C. A. Leland, El Dorado, 1886 

1883 Hon. J. T. Ellioott, Kansas City, Mo., 1886 

1885 Hon. Thos. Henshall, Kansas City, Kas., 1890 

1885 Hon. T. P. Moore, Holton, 

1885 Hon. A. B. Lemmon, Santa Rosa, Cal., . . . . ' . . 1888 

1885 Hon. A. P. Forsyth, Liberty 

1886 Hon. Jno. E. Hessin, Manhattan, 1892 

1886 Hon. J. H. Fullinwider, El Dorado, 1887 

1887 Hon. E. N. Smith, El Dorado 1889 

1888 Hon. Joshua Wheeler, Nortonville, ....... 

1889 Hon. Morgan Caraway, Great Bend, ....... 1892 

1890 Hon. R. W. Finley, Oberlin, 

1892 Hon. F. M. Chaffee, Wyckoff, . 

1892 Hon. R. P. Kelley, Eureka, 



SEOEETAEIES Or THE BOAED 



1863 Regent T. H. Baker 1870 

1870 Regent R. D. Parker, 1873 

1873 Prof. E. Gale 1873 

1873 Wm. Burgoyne, 1874 

1874 Regent N. A. Adams 1878 

1878 Pres. Jno. A. Anderson, . . . . . . . . . 1879 

1879 Regent T. C. Henry, . 1879 



72 KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



1879 Pres. Geo. T. Fairchild, 
1884 I. D. Graham, (Assistant,) 



TBEASUEEBS Or THE BOABD. 

1863 J. Pipher, i 1870 

1870 E. B. Puroell, . . 1882 

1882 P. 0. .MoKay, . . . . . ... . ... 1883 

1883 J. T. EllicQtt, . . . ■ . . . . . • . . . 1886 

1886 Jno. E. Hessin, ........... 1892" 

1892 Joshua Wheeler, . . ' . . '. . . . . . 

LAND AGENTS. 

1866 I. T. Goodnow, . < . ... . . 187* 

1873 L. R. Elliott, . ^.'v^:,/.. .'. .... 188* 

1883 J. B. Gilford, .. .'. .. .. , : ;.V" • ■ " ■ • 188» 

LOAN COMMISSIONEBS. 

1870 E. Gale, 1878- 

1878 M.L.Ward, 1883 

1883 J. T. Ellioott, ........... 1886 

1886 T. P. Moore, 1889' 

1889 Jno. E. Hessin, 1890 

1890 T. P. Moore, . 

FACULTY, 1863 TO 1893. 

PBESIDENTS. 

1863 Joseph Denison, . 187S 

1873 John A. Anderson, . 1879 

1879 George T. Fairchild, '. 

SECBET ABIES. 

1864 J. E. Piatt, * . ' . . 1871 

1871 Mrs. Lizzie J. Williams Ohampney, ....... 1873 

1873 J. E. Piatt, . . . 1881 

1881 I.D.Graham, . . '. ". '. . . . .. ... 



FEOFESSOES. 

1863 Joseph Denison, '63-'66, Ancient Languages, and Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence; '66-'69, Mental and Moral Science, and the Greek Language; 
'69-'70, Mental and Moral Science, and Political Economy; '70-'73, 
History, Political Economy, and Mental and Moral Philosophy, . 1873 

1863 J. G. Schnebly, Natural History, and Lecturer on Agricultural Chemis- 
try, . . '. ". . ' 1865- 

1863 N. 0. Preston, Mathematics, and English Literature, (deceased,) . . 1866 

1864 C. Hubschman, Instrumental Music, (deceased,) ..... 1866 

1865 B.F. Mudge, '65-'70, Natural Science and Higher Mathematics; '70-74, 

Natural Sciences, (deceased,) ........ 1874 

1866 Gen. J. H. Davidson, '66-'68, Military Science and Tactics; '68-'69, Mili- 

tary Science and Tactics, and Teacher of French and Spanish; '69-'70, 
Military Science and Tactics and Civil Engineering, and Teacher of 
French and Spanish, (deceased,) ....... 1870' 



COLUMBIAN HISTORY. 



73 



1866 J. H. Lee, '66-'69, Latin Language and Literature; '69-'70, Latin and 
Greek Languages and Literature; '70-'71, Agricultural Classics; '71- 

'74, Latin and English Literature; '74-'75, English and History, . 1875 

1866 J. W. Hougham, '66-'69, Agricultural Science; '69-'70, Agricultural and 
Commercial Science; '70-'72, Agricultural Chemistry, Mechanic Arts, 

and Commercial Science, . . . . . . . . 1872 

1866 J. E. Piatt, '66-'74, Mathematics and Vocal Music; '74-'83, Elementary 

English and Mathematics, . . . . . . . . 1883 

1869 Miss Mary F. Hovey, '69-'70, German Language and Literature; '70-'72, 

German Language and English Literature, ..... 1872 

1870 Fred. E. Miller, Practical Agriculture, 1874 

1870 E. Gale, '70-'75, Horticulture ('70-'71, Instructor); '75-'78, Botany and 

Practical Horticulture, ......... 1878 

1872 H. J. Detmers, Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, . . . 1874 

1873 M. L. Ward, '73-'75, Mathematics; '75-'82, Mathematics and English; 
'82-'83, Mathematics and Engineering, ...... 1883 

187/K3 Wm. K. Kedzie, Chemistry and Physics, 1878 

1874 E. M. Shelton, '74-'82, Practical Agriculture; '82-'89, Agriculture, . 1889 
187/C3 J. S. Whitman, Botany, Entomology, and Geology, .... 1876 

1877 John D.Walters, '77-'85, Instructor in Industrial Drawing; '85-, Indus- 

trial Art and Designing, ......... 

1878 George H. Pailyer, '78-'8o, Chemistry and Physics; '85-, Chemistry and 

Mineralogy, . . . . ... . •. ' • •", . . . . 

1878 H. E. Van Deman, Botany and Horticulture, 1879 

1878 Wm. L. Hofer, Music, . 1886 

1879 Edwin A. Popenoe, '79-80, Botany and Horticulture; '80-'83, Botany 

and Zoology; '83-, Horticulture and Entomology, .... 

1879 George T. Fairchild, '79-'80, Political Economy; '80-, Logic and Polit- 
ical Economy, .......... 

1881 Lieut. Albert Todd, Military Science and Tactics, .... 1884 

1882 Mrs. N. S. Kedzie, Household Economy and Hygiene ('82-'87, Instruc- 

tor) ■ . . . . 

1882 W. H. Cowles, English and History ( '82-'84, Instructor), . . . 1885 

1883 William A. Kellerman, '83-'87, Botany and Zoology; '87-'91, Botany, . 1891 
1883 David E. Lantz, Mathematics, ........ 

1883 B. F. Nihart, '83-'85, Mechanics and Engineering; '85-'86, Instructor in 

Book-keeping, .'. . . 1886 

1884 Lieut. W. J. Nicholson, Military Science and Tactics, .... 1887 

1885 Elias B. Cowgill, Mechanics, Physics, and Engineering ( '85-'86, Instruc- 

tor), . 1887 

1885 Oscar E. Olin, '85-'88, English and History ('85-'86, Instructor); '88-, 

English Language and Literature, ....... 

1886 Alexander B. Brown, Music, ........ ■ 

1887 Ozni P. Hood, Mechanics and Engineering ( '87-'89, Instructor), . . 

1887 Lieut. John F. Morrison, Military Science and Tactics, . . . 1890 

1888 Robert F. Burleigh, Physiology and Veterinary Science, . . . 1889 

1888 Francis H. White, History and Constitutional Law ( '88-'89, Instructor), 

1890 Charles C. Georgeson, Agriculture, 

1890 Captain Edwin B. Bolton, Military Science and Tactics, . . . 

1890 Ernest R. Nichols, Physics, 

1890 Nelson S. Mayo, Physiology and Veterinary Science, . . . 



74 Kansas State Agricultural College. 



1891 Julius T. Willard, Assistant Professor of Chemistry ('83-'91, Laboratory- 
Assistant), . . . . . . . . . . . 

1891 Albert S. Hitchcock, Botany, . 

1892 Silas C. Mason, Assistant Professor of Horticulture ('88-'92, foreman of 
Gardens and Orchards), ......... 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Farm. 

1870 Fred. E. Miller, 1874 

1874 Edward M. Shelton, . 1889 

1889 Charles C. Georgeson, ......... 

Gardens, Orchards, etc. 

1870 E. Gale 1878 

1878 H. E. VanDeman, . . . .1879 

1879 Edwin A. Popenoe, .......... 

Shops. 

1871 Ambrose Todd (deceased) 1878 

1878 T. T. Hawkes, . . . .... . . . 1882 

1882 M. A. Reeve (acting), 1883 

1883 T. T. Hawkes ' . 1886 

1886 0. P. Hood, 

Printing. 

1874 A.A.Stewart, . . . . . . . . . . . 1881 

1881 Geo. F. Thompson (acting, '81-'82), 1887 

1887 John S. C. Thompson, . . . . .... . . 

Telegraphy. 

1873 Frank C. Jackson 1874 

1874 Walter C. Stewart, 1879 

1879 I. D. Graham, 189>1 

1891 Department abolished. 

i Sewing. 

1874 Mrs. H. C. Cheseldine, 1875 

1875 Mrs. M. E. Cripps, 1882 

1882 Mrs. N. S. Kedzie, 1884 

1884 Mrs. E. E. Winchip, 

INSTBDOTOBS. 

1863 Mrs. Ella C. Beckwith, Instrumental Music 1864 

1866 Mrs. Laura C. Lee, Instrumental Music, . . . ' . . 1868 

1868 Miss Emily M. Campbell, Instrumental Music, 1869 

1869 Mrs. Hattie V. Werden, Instrumental Music, 1877 

1870 Mrs. Lizzie J. Williams Champney, Drawing, ..... 1876 

1872 Miss Jennie Detmers, Chemistry and German, ..... 1873 
1875 Mrs. M. E. Cripps, Household Economy, 1882 

1875 Mrs. M. L. Ward, French and German, 1876 

1876 Mrs. Ella M. Kedzie, Drawing, . . . # 1877 

1876 Harry F. McFarland, Meteorology, 1876 

1877 Miss Carrie Steele, Instrumental Music, 1878 

1886 Ira D. Graham, Book-keeping and Commercial Law, .... 



Columbian History. 



75 



1887 Frederick J. Rogers, 1889 

1891 James W. Rain, English Language, ....... 1892 

1892 Miss Josie 0. Harper, Mathematics, ....... 

1892 Miss Alice Rupp, English, 

FOREMEN. 

Farm. 

1872 J. C. Mayos, 1 1875 

1875 T.B.Morgan, . . : ' »> : • : . ... I 1882 

1882 W. S. Myers 1883 

1883 E. Gregory, 1883 

1883 W. Whitney, 1886 

1886 George R. Wilson, . . . . . . . . . . 1887 

1887 W. Shelton, 1893 

Gardens, Orchards, etc. 

1881 A. Winder, . . 1883 

1883 G. E. Hopper, 1887 

1883 W. Baxter (greenhouse), ......... 

1887 C. L. Marlatt, . . . \- \ . . . .1888 

1892 F. C. Sears, 

Blacksmith Shop. 

1878 S. A. Hayes, 1879 

1879 J. Linder (student, acting), . . . . . . . . 1883 

1883 J. Lund, 1886 

1886 Charles A. Gundaker, 1891 

1891 Blacksmith shop transformed into workshop in iron. 

Workshop in Wood. 

1887 Geo. N. Thompson, 1888 

1888 William L. House, . 

Workshop in Iron. 

1891 E. Harrold, . . . . . . . . 

LIBRARIANS. 

1867 J. H. Lee 1869 

1869 J. S. Hougham 1871 

1871 J. H. Lee 1873 

1873 J. S. Whitman, ........... 1875 

1875 M.L.Ward \ V \ '.^ . . 1882 

1882 W. H. Cowles . \ . . 1885 

1885 B. F. Nihart, 1886 

1886 D. E. Lantz, . . ... 

PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. 

1864 J. E. Piatt, Principal, 1866 

'1864 Miss Belle M. Haines, Assistant, 1864 

LECTURERS. 

Dr. John A. Warder, Horticulture and Pomology, ..... 1871 

Joseph Rushman, Veterinary Science, ........ 1871 

Charles V. Riley, Economic Entomology, 1876 



\ 



76 KANSAS STATE A GBIG UL TUBAL COLLEGE. 



D. J. Brewer, Practical Law, . . . . ... . . 1875-77 

Dr. Paul Pagnin, Veterinary Science, ........ 1887 

ANNUAL ADDRESSES. 

John J. Ingalls, Atchison, .......... 1873 

T. Dwight Thacher, Lawrence, ......... 1874 

Noble L. Prentis, Atchison, ......... 1875 

J. K. Hudson, Topeka, . . . . . . . . . . 1876 

J. R. HaUowell, Columbus, 1878 

S. 0. Thacher, Lawrence, .......... 1880 

S. S. Benedict, Guilford 1881 

James Humphrey, Junction City, ........ 1883 

George R. Peck, Topeka, 1884 

Rev. A. D. Mayo, Boston, Mass., ......... 1885 

T. Dwight Thacher, Topeka, 1886 

Edwin Willits, Lansing, Mich., . . . * . . . . '. . 1887 

H. A. Burrill, Washington, Iowa, ......... 1888 

N. C. McFarland, Topeka, 1889 

E. E. White, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1890 

J. M. Greenwood, Kansas City, Mo., ........ 1891 

C. G. Luce, Coldwater, Mich., 1892 

ASSISTANTS IN EXPERIMENT STATION. 

1888 Henry M. Cottrell, Agriculture, 1892 

1888 Charles L. Marlatt, Horticulture, 1889 

1888 Walter T. Swingle, Botany 1891 

1888 Silas C. Mason, Horticulture, 

1888 Julius T. Willard, Chemistry, 

1889 Predric A. Marlatt, Entomology, ....... 

1891 Emma Allen (deceased), Botany, ....... 1891 

1892 M. A. Carleton, Botany, ......... 

1892 F. C. Burtis, Agriculture, . . ■